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Retrieve a WebACL.

Inputs

フィールド

種類

説明

region [required]

enum

default: Global (Cloudfront)

webAclId [required]

string

The unique identifier for the web ACL. This ID is returned in the responses to create and list commands. You provide it to operations like update and delete.

webAclName [required]

string

The name of the web ACL. You cannot change the name of a web ACL after you create it.

scope

enum

Specify whether this is for an Amazon CloudFront distribution or for a regional application. A CloudFront application must use us-east-1 as its region. A regional application can be an Application Load Balancer (ALB), an Amazon API Gateway REST API, or an AWS AppSync GraphQL API. Allowed enum values: CLOUDFRONT,REGIONAL

Outputs

Expand All

フィールド

種類

説明

webAcl

object

The web ACL specification.

Name [required]

string

The name of the web ACL. You cannot change the name of a web ACL after you create it.

Id [required]

string

A unique identifier for the WebACL. This ID is returned in the responses to create and list commands. You use this ID to do things like get, update, and delete a WebACL.

ARN [required]

string

The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the web ACL that you want to associate with the resource.

DefaultAction [required]

object

The action to perform if none of the Rules contained in the WebACL match.

Block

object

Specifies that WAF should block requests by default.

CustomResponse

object

Defines a custom response for the web request.
For information about customizing web requests and responses, see Customized web requests and responses in WAF in the WAF Developer Guide.

ResponseCode [required]

number

The HTTP status code to return to the client.
For a list of status codes that you can use in your custom responses, see Supported status codes for custom response in the WAF Developer Guide.

CustomResponseBodyKey

string

References the response body that you want WAF to return to the web request client. You can define a custom response for a rule action or a default web ACL action that is set to block. To do this, you first define the response body key and value in the CustomResponseBodies setting for the WebACL or RuleGroup where you want to use it. Then, in the rule action or web ACL default action BlockAction setting, you reference the response body using this key.

ResponseHeaders

[object]

The HTTP headers to use in the response. Duplicate header names are not allowed.
For information about the limits on count and size for custom request and response settings, see WAF quotas in the WAF Developer Guide.

Name [required]

string

The name of the custom header.
For custom request header insertion, when WAF inserts the header into the request, it prefixes this name x-amzn-waf-, to avoid confusion with the headers that are already in the request. For example, for the header name sample, WAF inserts the header x-amzn-waf-sample.

Value [required]

string

The value of the custom header.

Allow

object

Specifies that WAF should allow requests by default.

CustomRequestHandling

object

Defines custom handling for the web request.
For information about customizing web requests and responses, see Customized web requests and responses in WAF in the WAF Developer Guide.

InsertHeaders [required]

[object]

The HTTP headers to insert into the request. Duplicate header names are not allowed.
For information about the limits on count and size for custom request and response settings, see WAF quotas in the WAF Developer Guide.

Name [required]

string

The name of the custom header.
For custom request header insertion, when WAF inserts the header into the request, it prefixes this name x-amzn-waf-, to avoid confusion with the headers that are already in the request. For example, for the header name sample, WAF inserts the header x-amzn-waf-sample.

Value [required]

string

The value of the custom header.

Description

string

A description of the web ACL that helps with identification.

Rules

[object]

The Rule statements used to identify the web requests that you want to manage. Each rule includes one top-level statement that WAF uses to identify matching web requests, and parameters that govern how WAF handles them.

Name [required]

string

The name of the rule. If you change the name of a Rule after you create it and you want the rule's metric name to reflect the change, update the metric name in the rule's VisibilityConfig settings. WAF doesn't automatically update the metric name when you update the rule name.

Priority [required]

number

If you define more than one Rule in a WebACL, WAF evaluates each request against the Rules in order based on the value of Priority. WAF processes rules with lower priority first. The priorities don't need to be consecutive, but they must all be different.

Statement [required]

object

The WAF processing statement for the rule, for example ByteMatchStatement or SizeConstraintStatement.

ByteMatchStatement

object

A rule statement that defines a string match search for WAF to apply to web requests. The byte match statement provides the bytes to search for, the location in requests that you want WAF to search, and other settings. The bytes to search for are typically a string that corresponds with ASCII characters. In the WAF console and the developer guide, this is called a string match statement.

SearchString [required]

A string value that you want WAF to search for. WAF searches only in the part of web requests that you designate for inspection in FieldToMatch. The maximum length of the value is 50 bytes.
Valid values depend on the component that you specify for inspection in FieldToMatch:
Method: The HTTP method that you want WAF to search for. This indicates the type of operation specified in the request.
UriPath: The value that you want WAF to search for in the URI path, for example, /images/daily-ad.jpg.
If SearchString includes alphabetic characters A-Z and a-z, note that the value is case sensitive.

  • If you're using the WAF API
    Specify a base64-encoded version of the value. The maximum length of the value before you base64-encode it is 50 bytes. For example, suppose the value of Type is HEADER and the value of Data is User-Agent. If you want to search the User-Agent header for the value BadBot, you base64-encode BadBot using MIME base64-encoding and include the resulting value, QmFkQm90, in the value of SearchString.
  • If you're using the CLI or one of the Amazon Web Services SDKs
    The value that you want WAF to search for. The SDK automatically base64 encodes the value.

FieldToMatch [required]

object

The part of the web request that you want WAF to inspect. For more information, see FieldToMatch.

SingleHeader

object

Inspect a single header. Provide the name of the header to inspect, for example, User-Agent or Referer. This setting isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleHeader": { "Name": "haystack" }
Alternately, you can filter and inspect all headers with the Headers FieldToMatch setting.

Name [required]

string

The name of the query header to inspect.

SingleQueryArgument

object

Inspect a single query argument. Provide the name of the query argument to inspect, such as UserName or SalesRegion. The name can be up to 30 characters long and isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleQueryArgument": { "Name": "myArgument" }

Name [required]

string

The name of the query argument to inspect.

AllQueryArguments

object

Inspect all query arguments.

UriPath

object

Inspect the request URI path. This is the part of the web request that identifies a resource, for example, /images/daily-ad.jpg.

QueryString

object

Inspect the query string. This is the part of a URL that appears after a ? character, if any.

Body

object

Inspect the request body as plain text. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form. Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the Body object configuration.

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Method

object

Inspect the HTTP method. The method indicates the type of operation that the request is asking the origin to perform.

JsonBody

object

Inspect the request body as JSON. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the JsonBody object configuration.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The patterns to look for in the JSON body. WAF inspects the results of these pattern matches against the rule inspection criteria.

All

object

Match all of the elements. See also MatchScope in JsonBody.
You must specify either this setting or the IncludedPaths setting, but not both.

IncludedPaths

[string]

Match only the specified include paths. See also MatchScope in JsonBody.
Provide the include paths using JSON Pointer syntax. For example, "IncludedPaths": ["/dogs/0/name", "/dogs/1/name"]. For information about this syntax, see the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) documentation JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Pointer.
You must specify either this setting or the All setting, but not both.
Don't use this option to include all paths. Instead, use the All setting.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the JSON to match against using the MatchPattern. If you specify All, WAF matches against keys and values.

InvalidFallbackBehavior

string

What WAF should do if it fails to completely parse the JSON body. The options are the following:
EVALUATE_AS_STRING - Inspect the body as plain text. WAF applies the text transformations and inspection criteria that you defined for the JSON inspection to the body text string.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement. If you don't provide this setting, WAF parses and evaluates the content only up to the first parsing failure that it encounters. WAF does its best to parse the entire JSON body, but might be forced to stop for reasons such as invalid characters, duplicate keys, truncation, and any content whose root node isn't an object or an array.
WAF parses the JSON in the following examples as two valid key, value pairs:

  • Missing comma: {"key1":"value1""key2":"value2"}
  • Missing colon: {"key1":"value1","key2""value2"}
  • Extra colons: {"key1"::"value1","key2""value2"}

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Headers

object

Inspect the request headers. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Headers object, to define the set of headers to and the parts of the headers that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's headers and only the first 200 headers are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize header content in the Headers object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the headers that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of headers to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedHeaders, or ExcludedHeaders.
Example JSON: "HeaderMatchPattern": { "ExcludedHeaders": {"KeyToExclude1", "KeyToExclude2"} }

All

object

Inspect all headers.

IncludedHeaders

[string]

Inspect only the headers that have a key that matches one of the strings specified here.

ExcludedHeaders

[string]

Inspect only the headers whose keys don't match any of the strings specified here.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the headers to match with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

Cookies

object

Inspect the request cookies. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Cookies object, to define the set of cookies and the parts of the cookies that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's cookies and only the first 200 cookies are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize cookie content in the Cookies object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the cookies that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of cookies to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedCookies, or ExcludedCookies.
Example JSON: "CookieMatchPattern": { "IncludedCookies": {"KeyToInclude1", "KeyToInclude2", "KeyToInclude3"} }

All

object

Inspect all cookies.

IncludedCookies

[string]

Inspect only the cookies that have a key that matches one of the strings specified here.

ExcludedCookies

[string]

Inspect only the cookies whose keys don't match any of the strings specified here.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the cookies to inspect with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the cookies of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request cookies when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total cookies. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 cookies and at most 8 KB of cookie contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the cookies normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

HeaderOrder

object

Inspect a string containing the list of the request's header names, ordered as they appear in the web request that WAF receives for inspection. WAF generates the string and then uses that as the field to match component in its inspection. WAF separates the header names in the string using colons and no added spaces, for example host:user-agent:accept:authorization:referer.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are more numerous or larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF. The options for oversize handling are the following: CONTINUE - Inspect the available headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria. MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

JA3Fingerprint

object

Match against the request's JA3 fingerprint. The JA3 fingerprint is a 32-character hash derived from the TLS Client Hello of an incoming request. This fingerprint serves as a unique identifier for the client's TLS configuration. WAF calculates and logs this fingerprint for each request that has enough TLS Client Hello information for the calculation. Almost all web requests include this information. You can use this choice only with a string match ByteMatchStatement with the PositionalConstraint set to EXACTLY. You can obtain the JA3 fingerprint for client requests from the web ACL logs. If WAF is able to calculate the fingerprint, it includes it in the logs. For information about the logging fields, see Log fields in the WAF Developer Guide. Provide the JA3 fingerprint string from the logs in your string match statement specification, to match with any future requests that have the same TLS configuration.

FallbackBehavior [required]

string

The match status to assign to the web request if the request doesn't have a JA3 fingerprint. You can specify the following fallback behaviors: MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. If you specify one or more transformations in a rule statement, WAF performs all transformations on the content of the request component identified by FieldToMatch, starting from the lowest priority setting, before inspecting the content for a match.

Priority [required]

number

Sets the relative processing order for multiple transformations. WAF processes all transformations, from lowest priority to highest, before inspecting the transformed content. The priorities don't need to be consecutive, but they must all be different.

Type [required]

string

You can specify the following transformation types:
BASE64_DECODE - Decode a Base64-encoded string.
BASE64_DECODE_EXT - Decode a Base64-encoded string, but use a forgiving implementation that ignores characters that aren't valid.
CMD_LINE - Command-line transformations. These are helpful in reducing effectiveness of attackers who inject an operating system command-line command and use unusual formatting to disguise some or all of the command.

  • Delete the following characters: \ " ' ^
  • Delete spaces before the following characters: / (
  • Replace the following characters with a space: , ;
  • Replace multiple spaces with one space
  • Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z)

COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE - Replace these characters with a space character (decimal 32):

  • \f, formfeed, decimal 12
  • \t, tab, decimal 9
  • \n, newline, decimal 10
  • \r, carriage return, decimal 13
  • \v, vertical tab, decimal 11
  • Non-breaking space, decimal 160
    COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE also replaces multiple spaces with one space.

CSS_DECODE - Decode characters that were encoded using CSS 2.x escape rules syndata.html#characters. This function uses up to two bytes in the decoding process, so it can help to uncover ASCII characters that were encoded using CSS encoding that wouldn’t typically be encoded. It's also useful in countering evasion, which is a combination of a backslash and non-hexadecimal characters. For example, javascript for JavaScript.
ESCAPE_SEQ_DECODE - Decode the following ANSI C escape sequences: \a, \b, \f, \n, \r, \t, \v, \\, \?, \', \", \xHH (hexadecimal), \0OOO (octal). Encodings that aren't valid remain in the output.
HEX_DECODE - Decode a string of hexadecimal characters into a binary.
HTML_ENTITY_DECODE - Replace HTML-encoded characters with unencoded characters. HTML_ENTITY_DECODE performs these operations:

  • Replaces (ampersand)quot; with "
  • Replaces (ampersand)nbsp; with a non-breaking space, decimal 160
  • Replaces (ampersand)lt; with a < symbol
  • Replaces (ampersand)gt; with >
  • Replaces characters that are represented in hexadecimal format, (ampersand)#xhhhh;, with the corresponding characters
  • Replaces characters that are represented in decimal format, (ampersand)#nnnn;, with the corresponding characters

JS_DECODE - Decode JavaScript escape sequences. If a \ u HHHH code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, then the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. If not, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed, causing a possible loss of information.
LOWERCASE - Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z).
MD5 - Calculate an MD5 hash from the data in the input. The computed hash is in a raw binary form.
NONE - Specify NONE if you don't want any text transformations.
NORMALIZE_PATH - Remove multiple slashes, directory self-references, and directory back-references that are not at the beginning of the input from an input string.
NORMALIZE_PATH_WIN - This is the same as NORMALIZE_PATH, but first converts backslash characters to forward slashes.
REMOVE_NULLS - Remove all NULL bytes from the input.
REPLACE_COMMENTS - Replace each occurrence of a C-style comment (/* ... */) with a single space. Multiple consecutive occurrences are not compressed. Unterminated comments are also replaced with a space (ASCII 0x20). However, a standalone termination of a comment (*/) is not acted upon.
REPLACE_NULLS - Replace NULL bytes in the input with space characters (ASCII 0x20).
SQL_HEX_DECODE - Decode SQL hex data. Example (0x414243) will be decoded to (ABC).
URL_DECODE - Decode a URL-encoded value.
URL_DECODE_UNI - Like URL_DECODE, but with support for Microsoft-specific %u encoding. If the code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. Otherwise, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed.
UTF8_TO_UNICODE - Convert all UTF-8 character sequences to Unicode. This helps input normalization, and minimizing false-positives and false-negatives for non-English languages.

PositionalConstraint [required]

string

The area within the portion of the web request that you want WAF to search for SearchString. Valid values include the following:
CONTAINS
The specified part of the web request must include the value of SearchString, but the location doesn't matter.
CONTAINS_WORD
The specified part of the web request must include the value of SearchString, and SearchString must contain only alphanumeric characters or underscore (A-Z, a-z, 0-9, or _). In addition, SearchString must be a word, which means that both of the following are true:

  • SearchString is at the beginning of the specified part of the web request or is preceded by a character other than an alphanumeric character or underscore (_). Examples include the value of a header and ;BadBot.
  • SearchString is at the end of the specified part of the web request or is followed by a character other than an alphanumeric character or underscore (_), for example, BadBot; and -BadBot;.

EXACTLY
The value of the specified part of the web request must exactly match the value of SearchString.
STARTS_WITH
The value of SearchString must appear at the beginning of the specified part of the web request.
ENDS_WITH
The value of SearchString must appear at the end of the specified part of the web request.

SqliMatchStatement

object

A rule statement that inspects for malicious SQL code. Attackers insert malicious SQL code into web requests to do things like modify your database or extract data from it.

FieldToMatch [required]

object

The part of the web request that you want WAF to inspect. For more information, see FieldToMatch.

SingleHeader

object

Inspect a single header. Provide the name of the header to inspect, for example, User-Agent or Referer. This setting isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleHeader": { "Name": "haystack" }
Alternately, you can filter and inspect all headers with the Headers FieldToMatch setting.

Name [required]

string

The name of the query header to inspect.

SingleQueryArgument

object

Inspect a single query argument. Provide the name of the query argument to inspect, such as UserName or SalesRegion. The name can be up to 30 characters long and isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleQueryArgument": { "Name": "myArgument" }

Name [required]

string

The name of the query argument to inspect.

AllQueryArguments

object

Inspect all query arguments.

UriPath

object

Inspect the request URI path. This is the part of the web request that identifies a resource, for example, /images/daily-ad.jpg.

QueryString

object

Inspect the query string. This is the part of a URL that appears after a ? character, if any.

Body

object

Inspect the request body as plain text. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form. Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the Body object configuration.

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Method

object

Inspect the HTTP method. The method indicates the type of operation that the request is asking the origin to perform.

JsonBody

object

Inspect the request body as JSON. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the JsonBody object configuration.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The patterns to look for in the JSON body. WAF inspects the results of these pattern matches against the rule inspection criteria.

All

object

Match all of the elements. See also MatchScope in JsonBody.
You must specify either this setting or the IncludedPaths setting, but not both.

IncludedPaths

[string]

Match only the specified include paths. See also MatchScope in JsonBody.
Provide the include paths using JSON Pointer syntax. For example, "IncludedPaths": ["/dogs/0/name", "/dogs/1/name"]. For information about this syntax, see the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) documentation JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Pointer.
You must specify either this setting or the All setting, but not both.
Don't use this option to include all paths. Instead, use the All setting.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the JSON to match against using the MatchPattern. If you specify All, WAF matches against keys and values.

InvalidFallbackBehavior

string

What WAF should do if it fails to completely parse the JSON body. The options are the following:
EVALUATE_AS_STRING - Inspect the body as plain text. WAF applies the text transformations and inspection criteria that you defined for the JSON inspection to the body text string.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement. If you don't provide this setting, WAF parses and evaluates the content only up to the first parsing failure that it encounters. WAF does its best to parse the entire JSON body, but might be forced to stop for reasons such as invalid characters, duplicate keys, truncation, and any content whose root node isn't an object or an array.
WAF parses the JSON in the following examples as two valid key, value pairs:

  • Missing comma: {"key1":"value1""key2":"value2"}
  • Missing colon: {"key1":"value1","key2""value2"}
  • Extra colons: {"key1"::"value1","key2""value2"}

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Headers

object

Inspect the request headers. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Headers object, to define the set of headers to and the parts of the headers that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's headers and only the first 200 headers are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize header content in the Headers object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the headers that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of headers to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedHeaders, or ExcludedHeaders.
Example JSON: "HeaderMatchPattern": { "ExcludedHeaders": {"KeyToExclude1", "KeyToExclude2"} }

All

object

Inspect all headers.

IncludedHeaders

[string]

Inspect only the headers that have a key that matches one of the strings specified here.

ExcludedHeaders

[string]

Inspect only the headers whose keys don't match any of the strings specified here.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the headers to match with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

Cookies

object

Inspect the request cookies. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Cookies object, to define the set of cookies and the parts of the cookies that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's cookies and only the first 200 cookies are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize cookie content in the Cookies object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the cookies that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of cookies to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedCookies, or ExcludedCookies.
Example JSON: "CookieMatchPattern": { "IncludedCookies": {"KeyToInclude1", "KeyToInclude2", "KeyToInclude3"} }

All

object

Inspect all cookies.

IncludedCookies

[string]

Inspect only the cookies that have a key that matches one of the strings specified here.

ExcludedCookies

[string]

Inspect only the cookies whose keys don't match any of the strings specified here.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the cookies to inspect with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the cookies of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request cookies when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total cookies. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 cookies and at most 8 KB of cookie contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the cookies normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

HeaderOrder

object

Inspect a string containing the list of the request's header names, ordered as they appear in the web request that WAF receives for inspection. WAF generates the string and then uses that as the field to match component in its inspection. WAF separates the header names in the string using colons and no added spaces, for example host:user-agent:accept:authorization:referer.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are more numerous or larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF. The options for oversize handling are the following: CONTINUE - Inspect the available headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria. MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

JA3Fingerprint

object

Match against the request's JA3 fingerprint. The JA3 fingerprint is a 32-character hash derived from the TLS Client Hello of an incoming request. This fingerprint serves as a unique identifier for the client's TLS configuration. WAF calculates and logs this fingerprint for each request that has enough TLS Client Hello information for the calculation. Almost all web requests include this information. You can use this choice only with a string match ByteMatchStatement with the PositionalConstraint set to EXACTLY. You can obtain the JA3 fingerprint for client requests from the web ACL logs. If WAF is able to calculate the fingerprint, it includes it in the logs. For information about the logging fields, see Log fields in the WAF Developer Guide. Provide the JA3 fingerprint string from the logs in your string match statement specification, to match with any future requests that have the same TLS configuration.

FallbackBehavior [required]

string

The match status to assign to the web request if the request doesn't have a JA3 fingerprint. You can specify the following fallback behaviors: MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. If you specify one or more transformations in a rule statement, WAF performs all transformations on the content of the request component identified by FieldToMatch, starting from the lowest priority setting, before inspecting the content for a match.

Priority [required]

number

Sets the relative processing order for multiple transformations. WAF processes all transformations, from lowest priority to highest, before inspecting the transformed content. The priorities don't need to be consecutive, but they must all be different.

Type [required]

string

You can specify the following transformation types:
BASE64_DECODE - Decode a Base64-encoded string.
BASE64_DECODE_EXT - Decode a Base64-encoded string, but use a forgiving implementation that ignores characters that aren't valid.
CMD_LINE - Command-line transformations. These are helpful in reducing effectiveness of attackers who inject an operating system command-line command and use unusual formatting to disguise some or all of the command.

  • Delete the following characters: \ " ' ^
  • Delete spaces before the following characters: / (
  • Replace the following characters with a space: , ;
  • Replace multiple spaces with one space
  • Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z)

COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE - Replace these characters with a space character (decimal 32):

  • \f, formfeed, decimal 12
  • \t, tab, decimal 9
  • \n, newline, decimal 10
  • \r, carriage return, decimal 13
  • \v, vertical tab, decimal 11
  • Non-breaking space, decimal 160
    COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE also replaces multiple spaces with one space.

CSS_DECODE - Decode characters that were encoded using CSS 2.x escape rules syndata.html#characters. This function uses up to two bytes in the decoding process, so it can help to uncover ASCII characters that were encoded using CSS encoding that wouldn’t typically be encoded. It's also useful in countering evasion, which is a combination of a backslash and non-hexadecimal characters. For example, javascript for JavaScript.
ESCAPE_SEQ_DECODE - Decode the following ANSI C escape sequences: \a, \b, \f, \n, \r, \t, \v, \\, \?, \', \", \xHH (hexadecimal), \0OOO (octal). Encodings that aren't valid remain in the output.
HEX_DECODE - Decode a string of hexadecimal characters into a binary.
HTML_ENTITY_DECODE - Replace HTML-encoded characters with unencoded characters. HTML_ENTITY_DECODE performs these operations:

  • Replaces (ampersand)quot; with "
  • Replaces (ampersand)nbsp; with a non-breaking space, decimal 160
  • Replaces (ampersand)lt; with a < symbol
  • Replaces (ampersand)gt; with >
  • Replaces characters that are represented in hexadecimal format, (ampersand)#xhhhh;, with the corresponding characters
  • Replaces characters that are represented in decimal format, (ampersand)#nnnn;, with the corresponding characters

JS_DECODE - Decode JavaScript escape sequences. If a \ u HHHH code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, then the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. If not, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed, causing a possible loss of information.
LOWERCASE - Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z).
MD5 - Calculate an MD5 hash from the data in the input. The computed hash is in a raw binary form.
NONE - Specify NONE if you don't want any text transformations.
NORMALIZE_PATH - Remove multiple slashes, directory self-references, and directory back-references that are not at the beginning of the input from an input string.
NORMALIZE_PATH_WIN - This is the same as NORMALIZE_PATH, but first converts backslash characters to forward slashes.
REMOVE_NULLS - Remove all NULL bytes from the input.
REPLACE_COMMENTS - Replace each occurrence of a C-style comment (/* ... */) with a single space. Multiple consecutive occurrences are not compressed. Unterminated comments are also replaced with a space (ASCII 0x20). However, a standalone termination of a comment (*/) is not acted upon.
REPLACE_NULLS - Replace NULL bytes in the input with space characters (ASCII 0x20).
SQL_HEX_DECODE - Decode SQL hex data. Example (0x414243) will be decoded to (ABC).
URL_DECODE - Decode a URL-encoded value.
URL_DECODE_UNI - Like URL_DECODE, but with support for Microsoft-specific %u encoding. If the code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. Otherwise, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed.
UTF8_TO_UNICODE - Convert all UTF-8 character sequences to Unicode. This helps input normalization, and minimizing false-positives and false-negatives for non-English languages.

SensitivityLevel

string

The sensitivity that you want WAF to use to inspect for SQL injection attacks. HIGH detects more attacks, but might generate more false positives, especially if your web requests frequently contain unusual strings. For information about identifying and mitigating false positives, see Testing and tuning in the WAF Developer Guide. LOW is generally a better choice for resources that already have other protections against SQL injection attacks or that have a low tolerance for false positives. Default: LOW

XssMatchStatement

object

A rule statement that inspects for cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks. In XSS attacks, the attacker uses vulnerabilities in a benign website as a vehicle to inject malicious client-site scripts into other legitimate web browsers.

FieldToMatch [required]

object

The part of the web request that you want WAF to inspect. For more information, see FieldToMatch.

SingleHeader

object

Inspect a single header. Provide the name of the header to inspect, for example, User-Agent or Referer. This setting isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleHeader": { "Name": "haystack" }
Alternately, you can filter and inspect all headers with the Headers FieldToMatch setting.

Name [required]

string

The name of the query header to inspect.

SingleQueryArgument

object

Inspect a single query argument. Provide the name of the query argument to inspect, such as UserName or SalesRegion. The name can be up to 30 characters long and isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleQueryArgument": { "Name": "myArgument" }

Name [required]

string

The name of the query argument to inspect.

AllQueryArguments

object

Inspect all query arguments.

UriPath

object

Inspect the request URI path. This is the part of the web request that identifies a resource, for example, /images/daily-ad.jpg.

QueryString

object

Inspect the query string. This is the part of a URL that appears after a ? character, if any.

Body

object

Inspect the request body as plain text. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form. Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the Body object configuration.

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Method

object

Inspect the HTTP method. The method indicates the type of operation that the request is asking the origin to perform.

JsonBody

object

Inspect the request body as JSON. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the JsonBody object configuration.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The patterns to look for in the JSON body. WAF inspects the results of these pattern matches against the rule inspection criteria.

All

object

Match all of the elements. See also MatchScope in JsonBody.
You must specify either this setting or the IncludedPaths setting, but not both.

IncludedPaths

[string]

Match only the specified include paths. See also MatchScope in JsonBody.
Provide the include paths using JSON Pointer syntax. For example, "IncludedPaths": ["/dogs/0/name", "/dogs/1/name"]. For information about this syntax, see the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) documentation JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Pointer.
You must specify either this setting or the All setting, but not both.
Don't use this option to include all paths. Instead, use the All setting.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the JSON to match against using the MatchPattern. If you specify All, WAF matches against keys and values.

InvalidFallbackBehavior

string

What WAF should do if it fails to completely parse the JSON body. The options are the following:
EVALUATE_AS_STRING - Inspect the body as plain text. WAF applies the text transformations and inspection criteria that you defined for the JSON inspection to the body text string.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement. If you don't provide this setting, WAF parses and evaluates the content only up to the first parsing failure that it encounters. WAF does its best to parse the entire JSON body, but might be forced to stop for reasons such as invalid characters, duplicate keys, truncation, and any content whose root node isn't an object or an array.
WAF parses the JSON in the following examples as two valid key, value pairs:

  • Missing comma: {"key1":"value1""key2":"value2"}
  • Missing colon: {"key1":"value1","key2""value2"}
  • Extra colons: {"key1"::"value1","key2""value2"}

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Headers

object

Inspect the request headers. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Headers object, to define the set of headers to and the parts of the headers that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's headers and only the first 200 headers are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize header content in the Headers object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the headers that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of headers to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedHeaders, or ExcludedHeaders.
Example JSON: "HeaderMatchPattern": { "ExcludedHeaders": {"KeyToExclude1", "KeyToExclude2"} }

All

object

Inspect all headers.

IncludedHeaders

[string]

Inspect only the headers that have a key that matches one of the strings specified here.

ExcludedHeaders

[string]

Inspect only the headers whose keys don't match any of the strings specified here.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the headers to match with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

Cookies

object

Inspect the request cookies. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Cookies object, to define the set of cookies and the parts of the cookies that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's cookies and only the first 200 cookies are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize cookie content in the Cookies object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the cookies that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of cookies to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedCookies, or ExcludedCookies.
Example JSON: "CookieMatchPattern": { "IncludedCookies": {"KeyToInclude1", "KeyToInclude2", "KeyToInclude3"} }

All

object

Inspect all cookies.

IncludedCookies

[string]

Inspect only the cookies that have a key that matches one of the strings specified here.

ExcludedCookies

[string]

Inspect only the cookies whose keys don't match any of the strings specified here.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the cookies to inspect with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the cookies of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request cookies when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total cookies. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 cookies and at most 8 KB of cookie contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the cookies normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

HeaderOrder

object

Inspect a string containing the list of the request's header names, ordered as they appear in the web request that WAF receives for inspection. WAF generates the string and then uses that as the field to match component in its inspection. WAF separates the header names in the string using colons and no added spaces, for example host:user-agent:accept:authorization:referer.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are more numerous or larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF. The options for oversize handling are the following: CONTINUE - Inspect the available headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria. MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

JA3Fingerprint

object

Match against the request's JA3 fingerprint. The JA3 fingerprint is a 32-character hash derived from the TLS Client Hello of an incoming request. This fingerprint serves as a unique identifier for the client's TLS configuration. WAF calculates and logs this fingerprint for each request that has enough TLS Client Hello information for the calculation. Almost all web requests include this information. You can use this choice only with a string match ByteMatchStatement with the PositionalConstraint set to EXACTLY. You can obtain the JA3 fingerprint for client requests from the web ACL logs. If WAF is able to calculate the fingerprint, it includes it in the logs. For information about the logging fields, see Log fields in the WAF Developer Guide. Provide the JA3 fingerprint string from the logs in your string match statement specification, to match with any future requests that have the same TLS configuration.

FallbackBehavior [required]

string

The match status to assign to the web request if the request doesn't have a JA3 fingerprint. You can specify the following fallback behaviors: MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. If you specify one or more transformations in a rule statement, WAF performs all transformations on the content of the request component identified by FieldToMatch, starting from the lowest priority setting, before inspecting the content for a match.

Priority [required]

number

Sets the relative processing order for multiple transformations. WAF processes all transformations, from lowest priority to highest, before inspecting the transformed content. The priorities don't need to be consecutive, but they must all be different.

Type [required]

string

You can specify the following transformation types:
BASE64_DECODE - Decode a Base64-encoded string.
BASE64_DECODE_EXT - Decode a Base64-encoded string, but use a forgiving implementation that ignores characters that aren't valid.
CMD_LINE - Command-line transformations. These are helpful in reducing effectiveness of attackers who inject an operating system command-line command and use unusual formatting to disguise some or all of the command.

  • Delete the following characters: \ " ' ^
  • Delete spaces before the following characters: / (
  • Replace the following characters with a space: , ;
  • Replace multiple spaces with one space
  • Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z)

COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE - Replace these characters with a space character (decimal 32):

  • \f, formfeed, decimal 12
  • \t, tab, decimal 9
  • \n, newline, decimal 10
  • \r, carriage return, decimal 13
  • \v, vertical tab, decimal 11
  • Non-breaking space, decimal 160
    COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE also replaces multiple spaces with one space.

CSS_DECODE - Decode characters that were encoded using CSS 2.x escape rules syndata.html#characters. This function uses up to two bytes in the decoding process, so it can help to uncover ASCII characters that were encoded using CSS encoding that wouldn’t typically be encoded. It's also useful in countering evasion, which is a combination of a backslash and non-hexadecimal characters. For example, javascript for JavaScript.
ESCAPE_SEQ_DECODE - Decode the following ANSI C escape sequences: \a, \b, \f, \n, \r, \t, \v, \\, \?, \', \", \xHH (hexadecimal), \0OOO (octal). Encodings that aren't valid remain in the output.
HEX_DECODE - Decode a string of hexadecimal characters into a binary.
HTML_ENTITY_DECODE - Replace HTML-encoded characters with unencoded characters. HTML_ENTITY_DECODE performs these operations:

  • Replaces (ampersand)quot; with "
  • Replaces (ampersand)nbsp; with a non-breaking space, decimal 160
  • Replaces (ampersand)lt; with a < symbol
  • Replaces (ampersand)gt; with >
  • Replaces characters that are represented in hexadecimal format, (ampersand)#xhhhh;, with the corresponding characters
  • Replaces characters that are represented in decimal format, (ampersand)#nnnn;, with the corresponding characters

JS_DECODE - Decode JavaScript escape sequences. If a \ u HHHH code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, then the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. If not, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed, causing a possible loss of information.
LOWERCASE - Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z).
MD5 - Calculate an MD5 hash from the data in the input. The computed hash is in a raw binary form.
NONE - Specify NONE if you don't want any text transformations.
NORMALIZE_PATH - Remove multiple slashes, directory self-references, and directory back-references that are not at the beginning of the input from an input string.
NORMALIZE_PATH_WIN - This is the same as NORMALIZE_PATH, but first converts backslash characters to forward slashes.
REMOVE_NULLS - Remove all NULL bytes from the input.
REPLACE_COMMENTS - Replace each occurrence of a C-style comment (/* ... */) with a single space. Multiple consecutive occurrences are not compressed. Unterminated comments are also replaced with a space (ASCII 0x20). However, a standalone termination of a comment (*/) is not acted upon.
REPLACE_NULLS - Replace NULL bytes in the input with space characters (ASCII 0x20).
SQL_HEX_DECODE - Decode SQL hex data. Example (0x414243) will be decoded to (ABC).
URL_DECODE - Decode a URL-encoded value.
URL_DECODE_UNI - Like URL_DECODE, but with support for Microsoft-specific %u encoding. If the code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. Otherwise, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed.
UTF8_TO_UNICODE - Convert all UTF-8 character sequences to Unicode. This helps input normalization, and minimizing false-positives and false-negatives for non-English languages.

SizeConstraintStatement

object

A rule statement that compares a number of bytes against the size of a request component, using a comparison operator, such as greater than (>) or less than (<). For example, you can use a size constraint statement to look for query strings that are longer than 100 bytes.
If you configure WAF to inspect the request body, WAF inspects only the first 8192 bytes (8 KB). If the request body for your web requests never exceeds 8192 bytes, you can create a size constraint condition and block requests that have a request body greater than 8192 bytes.
If you choose URI for the value of Part of the request to filter on, the slash (/) in the URI counts as one character. For example, the URI /logo.jpg is nine characters long.

FieldToMatch [required]

object

The part of the web request that you want WAF to inspect. For more information, see FieldToMatch.

SingleHeader

object

Inspect a single header. Provide the name of the header to inspect, for example, User-Agent or Referer. This setting isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleHeader": { "Name": "haystack" }
Alternately, you can filter and inspect all headers with the Headers FieldToMatch setting.

Name [required]

string

The name of the query header to inspect.

SingleQueryArgument

object

Inspect a single query argument. Provide the name of the query argument to inspect, such as UserName or SalesRegion. The name can be up to 30 characters long and isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleQueryArgument": { "Name": "myArgument" }

Name [required]

string

The name of the query argument to inspect.

AllQueryArguments

object

Inspect all query arguments.

UriPath

object

Inspect the request URI path. This is the part of the web request that identifies a resource, for example, /images/daily-ad.jpg.

QueryString

object

Inspect the query string. This is the part of a URL that appears after a ? character, if any.

Body

object

Inspect the request body as plain text. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form. Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the Body object configuration.

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Method

object

Inspect the HTTP method. The method indicates the type of operation that the request is asking the origin to perform.

JsonBody

object

Inspect the request body as JSON. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the JsonBody object configuration.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The patterns to look for in the JSON body. WAF inspects the results of these pattern matches against the rule inspection criteria.

All

object

Match all of the elements. See also MatchScope in JsonBody.
You must specify either this setting or the IncludedPaths setting, but not both.

IncludedPaths

[string]

Match only the specified include paths. See also MatchScope in JsonBody.
Provide the include paths using JSON Pointer syntax. For example, "IncludedPaths": ["/dogs/0/name", "/dogs/1/name"]. For information about this syntax, see the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) documentation JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Pointer.
You must specify either this setting or the All setting, but not both.
Don't use this option to include all paths. Instead, use the All setting.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the JSON to match against using the MatchPattern. If you specify All, WAF matches against keys and values.

InvalidFallbackBehavior

string

What WAF should do if it fails to completely parse the JSON body. The options are the following:
EVALUATE_AS_STRING - Inspect the body as plain text. WAF applies the text transformations and inspection criteria that you defined for the JSON inspection to the body text string.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement. If you don't provide this setting, WAF parses and evaluates the content only up to the first parsing failure that it encounters. WAF does its best to parse the entire JSON body, but might be forced to stop for reasons such as invalid characters, duplicate keys, truncation, and any content whose root node isn't an object or an array.
WAF parses the JSON in the following examples as two valid key, value pairs:

  • Missing comma: {"key1":"value1""key2":"value2"}
  • Missing colon: {"key1":"value1","key2""value2"}
  • Extra colons: {"key1"::"value1","key2""value2"}

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Headers

object

Inspect the request headers. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Headers object, to define the set of headers to and the parts of the headers that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's headers and only the first 200 headers are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize header content in the Headers object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the headers that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of headers to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedHeaders, or ExcludedHeaders.
Example JSON: "HeaderMatchPattern": { "ExcludedHeaders": {"KeyToExclude1", "KeyToExclude2"} }

All

object

Inspect all headers.

IncludedHeaders

[string]

Inspect only the headers that have a key that matches one of the strings specified here.

ExcludedHeaders

[string]

Inspect only the headers whose keys don't match any of the strings specified here.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the headers to match with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

Cookies

object

Inspect the request cookies. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Cookies object, to define the set of cookies and the parts of the cookies that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's cookies and only the first 200 cookies are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize cookie content in the Cookies object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the cookies that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of cookies to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedCookies, or ExcludedCookies.
Example JSON: "CookieMatchPattern": { "IncludedCookies": {"KeyToInclude1", "KeyToInclude2", "KeyToInclude3"} }

All

object

Inspect all cookies.

IncludedCookies

[string]

Inspect only the cookies that have a key that matches one of the strings specified here.

ExcludedCookies

[string]

Inspect only the cookies whose keys don't match any of the strings specified here.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the cookies to inspect with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the cookies of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request cookies when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total cookies. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 cookies and at most 8 KB of cookie contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the cookies normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

HeaderOrder

object

Inspect a string containing the list of the request's header names, ordered as they appear in the web request that WAF receives for inspection. WAF generates the string and then uses that as the field to match component in its inspection. WAF separates the header names in the string using colons and no added spaces, for example host:user-agent:accept:authorization:referer.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are more numerous or larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF. The options for oversize handling are the following: CONTINUE - Inspect the available headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria. MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

JA3Fingerprint

object

Match against the request's JA3 fingerprint. The JA3 fingerprint is a 32-character hash derived from the TLS Client Hello of an incoming request. This fingerprint serves as a unique identifier for the client's TLS configuration. WAF calculates and logs this fingerprint for each request that has enough TLS Client Hello information for the calculation. Almost all web requests include this information. You can use this choice only with a string match ByteMatchStatement with the PositionalConstraint set to EXACTLY. You can obtain the JA3 fingerprint for client requests from the web ACL logs. If WAF is able to calculate the fingerprint, it includes it in the logs. For information about the logging fields, see Log fields in the WAF Developer Guide. Provide the JA3 fingerprint string from the logs in your string match statement specification, to match with any future requests that have the same TLS configuration.

FallbackBehavior [required]

string

The match status to assign to the web request if the request doesn't have a JA3 fingerprint. You can specify the following fallback behaviors: MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

ComparisonOperator [required]

string

The operator to use to compare the request part to the size setting.

Size [required]

number

The size, in byte, to compare to the request part, after any transformations.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. If you specify one or more transformations in a rule statement, WAF performs all transformations on the content of the request component identified by FieldToMatch, starting from the lowest priority setting, before inspecting the content for a match.

Priority [required]

number

Sets the relative processing order for multiple transformations. WAF processes all transformations, from lowest priority to highest, before inspecting the transformed content. The priorities don't need to be consecutive, but they must all be different.

Type [required]

string

You can specify the following transformation types:
BASE64_DECODE - Decode a Base64-encoded string.
BASE64_DECODE_EXT - Decode a Base64-encoded string, but use a forgiving implementation that ignores characters that aren't valid.
CMD_LINE - Command-line transformations. These are helpful in reducing effectiveness of attackers who inject an operating system command-line command and use unusual formatting to disguise some or all of the command.

  • Delete the following characters: \ " ' ^
  • Delete spaces before the following characters: / (
  • Replace the following characters with a space: , ;
  • Replace multiple spaces with one space
  • Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z)

COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE - Replace these characters with a space character (decimal 32):

  • \f, formfeed, decimal 12
  • \t, tab, decimal 9
  • \n, newline, decimal 10
  • \r, carriage return, decimal 13
  • \v, vertical tab, decimal 11
  • Non-breaking space, decimal 160
    COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE also replaces multiple spaces with one space.

CSS_DECODE - Decode characters that were encoded using CSS 2.x escape rules syndata.html#characters. This function uses up to two bytes in the decoding process, so it can help to uncover ASCII characters that were encoded using CSS encoding that wouldn’t typically be encoded. It's also useful in countering evasion, which is a combination of a backslash and non-hexadecimal characters. For example, javascript for JavaScript.
ESCAPE_SEQ_DECODE - Decode the following ANSI C escape sequences: \a, \b, \f, \n, \r, \t, \v, \\, \?, \', \", \xHH (hexadecimal), \0OOO (octal). Encodings that aren't valid remain in the output.
HEX_DECODE - Decode a string of hexadecimal characters into a binary.
HTML_ENTITY_DECODE - Replace HTML-encoded characters with unencoded characters. HTML_ENTITY_DECODE performs these operations:

  • Replaces (ampersand)quot; with "
  • Replaces (ampersand)nbsp; with a non-breaking space, decimal 160
  • Replaces (ampersand)lt; with a < symbol
  • Replaces (ampersand)gt; with >
  • Replaces characters that are represented in hexadecimal format, (ampersand)#xhhhh;, with the corresponding characters
  • Replaces characters that are represented in decimal format, (ampersand)#nnnn;, with the corresponding characters

JS_DECODE - Decode JavaScript escape sequences. If a \ u HHHH code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, then the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. If not, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed, causing a possible loss of information.
LOWERCASE - Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z).
MD5 - Calculate an MD5 hash from the data in the input. The computed hash is in a raw binary form.
NONE - Specify NONE if you don't want any text transformations.
NORMALIZE_PATH - Remove multiple slashes, directory self-references, and directory back-references that are not at the beginning of the input from an input string.
NORMALIZE_PATH_WIN - This is the same as NORMALIZE_PATH, but first converts backslash characters to forward slashes.
REMOVE_NULLS - Remove all NULL bytes from the input.
REPLACE_COMMENTS - Replace each occurrence of a C-style comment (/* ... */) with a single space. Multiple consecutive occurrences are not compressed. Unterminated comments are also replaced with a space (ASCII 0x20). However, a standalone termination of a comment (*/) is not acted upon.
REPLACE_NULLS - Replace NULL bytes in the input with space characters (ASCII 0x20).
SQL_HEX_DECODE - Decode SQL hex data. Example (0x414243) will be decoded to (ABC).
URL_DECODE - Decode a URL-encoded value.
URL_DECODE_UNI - Like URL_DECODE, but with support for Microsoft-specific %u encoding. If the code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. Otherwise, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed.
UTF8_TO_UNICODE - Convert all UTF-8 character sequences to Unicode. This helps input normalization, and minimizing false-positives and false-negatives for non-English languages.

GeoMatchStatement

object

A rule statement that labels web requests by country and region and that matches against web requests based on country code. A geo match rule labels every request that it inspects regardless of whether it finds a match. To manage requests only by country, you can use this statement by itself and specify the countries that you want to match against in the CountryCodes array. Otherwise, configure your geo match rule with Count action so that it only labels requests. Then, add one or more label match rules to run after the geo match rule and configure them to match against the geographic labels and handle the requests as needed. WAF labels requests using the alpha-2 country and region codes from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 3166 standard. WAF determines the codes using either the IP address in the web request origin or, if you specify it, the address in the geo match ForwardedIPConfig. If you use the web request origin, the label formats are awswaf:clientip:geo:region:<ISO country code>-<ISO region code> and awswaf:clientip:geo:country:<ISO country code>. If you use a forwarded IP address, the label formats are awswaf:forwardedip:geo:region:<ISO country code>-<ISO region code> and awswaf:forwardedip:geo:country:<ISO country code>. For additional details, see Geographic match rule statement in the WAF Developer Guide.

CountryCodes

[string]

An array of two-character country codes, for example, [ "US", "CN" ], from the alpha-2 country ISO codes of the ISO 3166 international standard.

ForwardedIPConfig

object

The configuration for inspecting IP addresses in an HTTP header that you specify, instead of using the IP address that's reported by the web request origin. Commonly, this is the X-Forwarded-For (XFF) header, but you can specify any header name. If the specified header isn't present in the request, WAF doesn't apply the rule to the web request at all.

HeaderName [required]

string

The name of the HTTP header to use for the IP address. For example, to use the X-Forwarded-For (XFF) header, set this to X-Forwarded-For. If the specified header isn't present in the request, WAF doesn't apply the rule to the web request at all.

FallbackBehavior [required]

string

The match status to assign to the web request if the request doesn't have a valid IP address in the specified position.
If the specified header isn't present in the request, WAF doesn't apply the rule to the web request at all.
You can specify the following fallback behaviors:
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

RuleGroupReferenceStatement

object

A rule statement used to run the rules that are defined in a RuleGroup. To use this, create a rule group with your rules, then provide the ARN of the rule group in this statement.
You cannot nest a RuleGroupReferenceStatement, for example for use inside a NotStatement or OrStatement. You can only use a rule group reference statement at the top level inside a web ACL.

ARN [required]

string

The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the entity.

ExcludedRules

[object]

The rules in the referenced rule group whose actions are set to Count. When you exclude a rule, WAF evaluates it exactly as it would if the rule action setting were Count. This is a useful option for testing the rules in a rule group without modifying how they handle your web traffic.

Name [required]

string

The name of the rule whose action you want to override to Count.

RuleActionOverrides

[object]

Action settings to use in the place of the rule actions that are configured inside the rule group. You specify one override for each rule whose action you want to change. You can use overrides for testing, for example you can override all of rule actions to Count and then monitor the resulting count metrics to understand how the rule group would handle your web traffic. You can also permanently override some or all actions, to modify how the rule group manages your web traffic.

Name [required]

string

The name of the rule to override.

ActionToUse [required]

object

The override action to use, in place of the configured action of the rule in the rule group.

Block

object

Instructs WAF to block the web request.

CustomResponse

object

Defines a custom response for the web request.
For information about customizing web requests and responses, see Customized web requests and responses in WAF in the WAF Developer Guide.

ResponseCode [required]

number

The HTTP status code to return to the client.
For a list of status codes that you can use in your custom responses, see Supported status codes for custom response in the WAF Developer Guide.

CustomResponseBodyKey

string

References the response body that you want WAF to return to the web request client. You can define a custom response for a rule action or a default web ACL action that is set to block. To do this, you first define the response body key and value in the CustomResponseBodies setting for the WebACL or RuleGroup where you want to use it. Then, in the rule action or web ACL default action BlockAction setting, you reference the response body using this key.

ResponseHeaders

[object]

The HTTP headers to use in the response. Duplicate header names are not allowed.
For information about the limits on count and size for custom request and response settings, see WAF quotas in the WAF Developer Guide.

Name [required]

string

The name of the custom header.
For custom request header insertion, when WAF inserts the header into the request, it prefixes this name x-amzn-waf-, to avoid confusion with the headers that are already in the request. For example, for the header name sample, WAF inserts the header x-amzn-waf-sample.

Value [required]

string

The value of the custom header.

Allow

object

Instructs WAF to allow the web request.

CustomRequestHandling

object

Defines custom handling for the web request.
For information about customizing web requests and responses, see Customized web requests and responses in WAF in the WAF Developer Guide.

InsertHeaders [required]

[object]

The HTTP headers to insert into the request. Duplicate header names are not allowed.
For information about the limits on count and size for custom request and response settings, see WAF quotas in the WAF Developer Guide.

Name [required]

string

The name of the custom header.
For custom request header insertion, when WAF inserts the header into the request, it prefixes this name x-amzn-waf-, to avoid confusion with the headers that are already in the request. For example, for the header name sample, WAF inserts the header x-amzn-waf-sample.

Value [required]

string

The value of the custom header.

Count

object

Instructs WAF to count the web request and then continue evaluating the request using the remaining rules in the web ACL.

CustomRequestHandling

object

Defines custom handling for the web request.
For information about customizing web requests and responses, see Customized web requests and responses in WAF in the WAF Developer Guide.

InsertHeaders [required]

[object]

The HTTP headers to insert into the request. Duplicate header names are not allowed.
For information about the limits on count and size for custom request and response settings, see WAF quotas in the WAF Developer Guide.

Name [required]

string

The name of the custom header.
For custom request header insertion, when WAF inserts the header into the request, it prefixes this name x-amzn-waf-, to avoid confusion with the headers that are already in the request. For example, for the header name sample, WAF inserts the header x-amzn-waf-sample.

Value [required]

string

The value of the custom header.

Captcha

object

Instructs WAF to run a CAPTCHA check against the web request.

CustomRequestHandling

object

Defines custom handling for the web request.
For information about customizing web requests and responses, see Customized web requests and responses in WAF in the WAF Developer Guide.

InsertHeaders [required]

[object]

The HTTP headers to insert into the request. Duplicate header names are not allowed.
For information about the limits on count and size for custom request and response settings, see WAF quotas in the WAF Developer Guide.

Name [required]

string

The name of the custom header.
For custom request header insertion, when WAF inserts the header into the request, it prefixes this name x-amzn-waf-, to avoid confusion with the headers that are already in the request. For example, for the header name sample, WAF inserts the header x-amzn-waf-sample.

Value [required]

string

The value of the custom header.

Challenge

object

Instructs WAF to run a Challenge check against the web request.

CustomRequestHandling

object

Defines custom handling for the web request, used when the challenge inspection determines that the request's token is valid and unexpired. For information about customizing web requests and responses, see Customizing web requests and responses in WAF in the WAF Developer Guide.

InsertHeaders [required]

[object]

The HTTP headers to insert into the request. Duplicate header names are not allowed.
For information about the limits on count and size for custom request and response settings, see WAF quotas in the WAF Developer Guide.

Name [required]

string

The name of the custom header.
For custom request header insertion, when WAF inserts the header into the request, it prefixes this name x-amzn-waf-, to avoid confusion with the headers that are already in the request. For example, for the header name sample, WAF inserts the header x-amzn-waf-sample.

Value [required]

string

The value of the custom header.

IPSetReferenceStatement

object

A rule statement used to detect web requests coming from particular IP addresses or address ranges. To use this, create an IPSet that specifies the addresses you want to detect, then use the ARN of that set in this statement. To create an IP set, see CreateIPSet. Each IP set rule statement references an IP set. You create and maintain the set independent of your rules. This allows you to use the single set in multiple rules. When you update the referenced set, WAF automatically updates all rules that reference it.

ARN [required]

string

The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the IPSet that this statement references.

IPSetForwardedIPConfig

object

The configuration for inspecting IP addresses in an HTTP header that you specify, instead of using the IP address that's reported by the web request origin. Commonly, this is the X-Forwarded-For (XFF) header, but you can specify any header name.
If the specified header isn't present in the request, WAF doesn't apply the rule to the web request at all.

HeaderName [required]

string

The name of the HTTP header to use for the IP address. For example, to use the X-Forwarded-For (XFF) header, set this to X-Forwarded-For. If the specified header isn't present in the request, WAF doesn't apply the rule to the web request at all.

FallbackBehavior [required]

string

The match status to assign to the web request if the request doesn't have a valid IP address in the specified position.
If the specified header isn't present in the request, WAF doesn't apply the rule to the web request at all.
You can specify the following fallback behaviors:
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

Position [required]

string

The position in the header to search for the IP address. The header can contain IP addresses of the original client and also of proxies. For example, the header value could be 10.1.1.1, 127.0.0.0, 10.10.10.10 where the first IP address identifies the original client and the rest identify proxies that the request went through.
The options for this setting are the following:
FIRST - Inspect the first IP address in the list of IP addresses in the header. This is usually the client's original IP.
LAST - Inspect the last IP address in the list of IP addresses in the header.
ANY - Inspect all IP addresses in the header for a match. If the header contains more than 10 IP addresses, WAF inspects the last 10.

RegexPatternSetReferenceStatement

object

A rule statement used to search web request components for matches with regular expressions. To use this, create a RegexPatternSet that specifies the expressions that you want to detect, then use the ARN of that set in this statement. A web request matches the pattern set rule statement if the request component matches any of the patterns in the set. To create a regex pattern set, see CreateRegexPatternSet.
Each regex pattern set rule statement references a regex pattern set. You create and maintain the set independent of your rules. This allows you to use the single set in multiple rules. When you update the referenced set, WAF automatically updates all rules that reference it.

ARN [required]

string

The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the RegexPatternSet that this statement references.

FieldToMatch [required]

object

The part of the web request that you want WAF to inspect. For more information, see FieldToMatch.

SingleHeader

object

Inspect a single header. Provide the name of the header to inspect, for example, User-Agent or Referer. This setting isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleHeader": { "Name": "haystack" }
Alternately, you can filter and inspect all headers with the Headers FieldToMatch setting.

Name [required]

string

The name of the query header to inspect.

SingleQueryArgument

object

Inspect a single query argument. Provide the name of the query argument to inspect, such as UserName or SalesRegion. The name can be up to 30 characters long and isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleQueryArgument": { "Name": "myArgument" }

Name [required]

string

The name of the query argument to inspect.

AllQueryArguments

object

Inspect all query arguments.

UriPath

object

Inspect the request URI path. This is the part of the web request that identifies a resource, for example, /images/daily-ad.jpg.

QueryString

object

Inspect the query string. This is the part of a URL that appears after a ? character, if any.

Body

object

Inspect the request body as plain text. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form. Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the Body object configuration.

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Method

object

Inspect the HTTP method. The method indicates the type of operation that the request is asking the origin to perform.

JsonBody

object

Inspect the request body as JSON. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the JsonBody object configuration.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The patterns to look for in the JSON body. WAF inspects the results of these pattern matches against the rule inspection criteria.

All

object

Match all of the elements. See also MatchScope in JsonBody.
You must specify either this setting or the IncludedPaths setting, but not both.

IncludedPaths

[string]

Match only the specified include paths. See also MatchScope in JsonBody.
Provide the include paths using JSON Pointer syntax. For example, "IncludedPaths": ["/dogs/0/name", "/dogs/1/name"]. For information about this syntax, see the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) documentation JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Pointer.
You must specify either this setting or the All setting, but not both.
Don't use this option to include all paths. Instead, use the All setting.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the JSON to match against using the MatchPattern. If you specify All, WAF matches against keys and values.

InvalidFallbackBehavior

string

What WAF should do if it fails to completely parse the JSON body. The options are the following:
EVALUATE_AS_STRING - Inspect the body as plain text. WAF applies the text transformations and inspection criteria that you defined for the JSON inspection to the body text string.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement. If you don't provide this setting, WAF parses and evaluates the content only up to the first parsing failure that it encounters. WAF does its best to parse the entire JSON body, but might be forced to stop for reasons such as invalid characters, duplicate keys, truncation, and any content whose root node isn't an object or an array.
WAF parses the JSON in the following examples as two valid key, value pairs:

  • Missing comma: {"key1":"value1""key2":"value2"}
  • Missing colon: {"key1":"value1","key2""value2"}
  • Extra colons: {"key1"::"value1","key2""value2"}

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Headers

object

Inspect the request headers. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Headers object, to define the set of headers to and the parts of the headers that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's headers and only the first 200 headers are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize header content in the Headers object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the headers that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of headers to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedHeaders, or ExcludedHeaders.
Example JSON: "HeaderMatchPattern": { "ExcludedHeaders": {"KeyToExclude1", "KeyToExclude2"} }

All

object

Inspect all headers.

IncludedHeaders

[string]

Inspect only the headers that have a key that matches one of the strings specified here.

ExcludedHeaders

[string]

Inspect only the headers whose keys don't match any of the strings specified here.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the headers to match with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

Cookies

object

Inspect the request cookies. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Cookies object, to define the set of cookies and the parts of the cookies that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's cookies and only the first 200 cookies are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize cookie content in the Cookies object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the cookies that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of cookies to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedCookies, or ExcludedCookies.
Example JSON: "CookieMatchPattern": { "IncludedCookies": {"KeyToInclude1", "KeyToInclude2", "KeyToInclude3"} }

All

object

Inspect all cookies.

IncludedCookies

[string]

Inspect only the cookies that have a key that matches one of the strings specified here.

ExcludedCookies

[string]

Inspect only the cookies whose keys don't match any of the strings specified here.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the cookies to inspect with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the cookies of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request cookies when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total cookies. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 cookies and at most 8 KB of cookie contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the cookies normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

HeaderOrder

object

Inspect a string containing the list of the request's header names, ordered as they appear in the web request that WAF receives for inspection. WAF generates the string and then uses that as the field to match component in its inspection. WAF separates the header names in the string using colons and no added spaces, for example host:user-agent:accept:authorization:referer.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are more numerous or larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF. The options for oversize handling are the following: CONTINUE - Inspect the available headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria. MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

JA3Fingerprint

object

Match against the request's JA3 fingerprint. The JA3 fingerprint is a 32-character hash derived from the TLS Client Hello of an incoming request. This fingerprint serves as a unique identifier for the client's TLS configuration. WAF calculates and logs this fingerprint for each request that has enough TLS Client Hello information for the calculation. Almost all web requests include this information. You can use this choice only with a string match ByteMatchStatement with the PositionalConstraint set to EXACTLY. You can obtain the JA3 fingerprint for client requests from the web ACL logs. If WAF is able to calculate the fingerprint, it includes it in the logs. For information about the logging fields, see Log fields in the WAF Developer Guide. Provide the JA3 fingerprint string from the logs in your string match statement specification, to match with any future requests that have the same TLS configuration.

FallbackBehavior [required]

string

The match status to assign to the web request if the request doesn't have a JA3 fingerprint. You can specify the following fallback behaviors: MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. If you specify one or more transformations in a rule statement, WAF performs all transformations on the content of the request component identified by FieldToMatch, starting from the lowest priority setting, before inspecting the content for a match.

Priority [required]

number

Sets the relative processing order for multiple transformations. WAF processes all transformations, from lowest priority to highest, before inspecting the transformed content. The priorities don't need to be consecutive, but they must all be different.

Type [required]

string

You can specify the following transformation types:
BASE64_DECODE - Decode a Base64-encoded string.
BASE64_DECODE_EXT - Decode a Base64-encoded string, but use a forgiving implementation that ignores characters that aren't valid.
CMD_LINE - Command-line transformations. These are helpful in reducing effectiveness of attackers who inject an operating system command-line command and use unusual formatting to disguise some or all of the command.

  • Delete the following characters: \ " ' ^
  • Delete spaces before the following characters: / (
  • Replace the following characters with a space: , ;
  • Replace multiple spaces with one space
  • Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z)

COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE - Replace these characters with a space character (decimal 32):

  • \f, formfeed, decimal 12
  • \t, tab, decimal 9
  • \n, newline, decimal 10
  • \r, carriage return, decimal 13
  • \v, vertical tab, decimal 11
  • Non-breaking space, decimal 160
    COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE also replaces multiple spaces with one space.

CSS_DECODE - Decode characters that were encoded using CSS 2.x escape rules syndata.html#characters. This function uses up to two bytes in the decoding process, so it can help to uncover ASCII characters that were encoded using CSS encoding that wouldn’t typically be encoded. It's also useful in countering evasion, which is a combination of a backslash and non-hexadecimal characters. For example, javascript for JavaScript.
ESCAPE_SEQ_DECODE - Decode the following ANSI C escape sequences: \a, \b, \f, \n, \r, \t, \v, \\, \?, \', \", \xHH (hexadecimal), \0OOO (octal). Encodings that aren't valid remain in the output.
HEX_DECODE - Decode a string of hexadecimal characters into a binary.
HTML_ENTITY_DECODE - Replace HTML-encoded characters with unencoded characters. HTML_ENTITY_DECODE performs these operations:

  • Replaces (ampersand)quot; with "
  • Replaces (ampersand)nbsp; with a non-breaking space, decimal 160
  • Replaces (ampersand)lt; with a < symbol
  • Replaces (ampersand)gt; with >
  • Replaces characters that are represented in hexadecimal format, (ampersand)#xhhhh;, with the corresponding characters
  • Replaces characters that are represented in decimal format, (ampersand)#nnnn;, with the corresponding characters

JS_DECODE - Decode JavaScript escape sequences. If a \ u HHHH code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, then the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. If not, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed, causing a possible loss of information.
LOWERCASE - Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z).
MD5 - Calculate an MD5 hash from the data in the input. The computed hash is in a raw binary form.
NONE - Specify NONE if you don't want any text transformations.
NORMALIZE_PATH - Remove multiple slashes, directory self-references, and directory back-references that are not at the beginning of the input from an input string.
NORMALIZE_PATH_WIN - This is the same as NORMALIZE_PATH, but first converts backslash characters to forward slashes.
REMOVE_NULLS - Remove all NULL bytes from the input.
REPLACE_COMMENTS - Replace each occurrence of a C-style comment (/* ... */) with a single space. Multiple consecutive occurrences are not compressed. Unterminated comments are also replaced with a space (ASCII 0x20). However, a standalone termination of a comment (*/) is not acted upon.
REPLACE_NULLS - Replace NULL bytes in the input with space characters (ASCII 0x20).
SQL_HEX_DECODE - Decode SQL hex data. Example (0x414243) will be decoded to (ABC).
URL_DECODE - Decode a URL-encoded value.
URL_DECODE_UNI - Like URL_DECODE, but with support for Microsoft-specific %u encoding. If the code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. Otherwise, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed.
UTF8_TO_UNICODE - Convert all UTF-8 character sequences to Unicode. This helps input normalization, and minimizing false-positives and false-negatives for non-English languages.

RateBasedStatement

object

A rate-based rule tracks the rate of requests for each originating IP address, and triggers the rule action when the rate exceeds a limit that you specify on the number of requests in any 5-minute time span. You can use this to put a temporary block on requests from an IP address that is sending excessive requests.
WAF tracks and manages web requests separately for each instance of a rate-based rule that you use. For example, if you provide the same rate-based rule settings in two web ACLs, each of the two rule statements represents a separate instance of the rate-based rule and gets its own tracking and management by WAF. If you define a rate-based rule inside a rule group, and then use that rule group in multiple places, each use creates a separate instance of the rate-based rule that gets its own tracking and management by WAF.
When the rule action triggers, WAF blocks additional requests from the IP address until the request rate falls below the limit.
You can optionally nest another statement inside the rate-based statement, to narrow the scope of the rule so that it only counts requests that match the nested statement. For example, based on recent requests that you have seen from an attacker, you might create a rate-based rule with a nested AND rule statement that contains the following nested statements:

  • An IP match statement with an IP set that specified the address 192.0.2.44.
  • A string match statement that searches in the User-Agent header for the string BadBot.

In this rate-based rule, you also define a rate limit. For this example, the rate limit is 1,000. Requests that meet both of the conditions in the statements are counted. If the count exceeds 1,000 requests per five minutes, the rule action triggers. Requests that do not meet both conditions are not counted towards the rate limit and are not affected by this rule.
You cannot nest a RateBasedStatement inside another statement, for example inside a NotStatement or OrStatement. You can define a RateBasedStatement inside a web ACL and inside a rule group.

Limit [required]

number

The limit on requests per 5-minute period for a single originating IP address. If the statement includes a ScopeDownStatement, this limit is applied only to the requests that match the statement.

AggregateKeyType [required]

string

Setting that indicates how to aggregate the request counts. The options are the following:
IP - Aggregate the request counts on the IP address from the web request origin.
FORWARDED_IP - Aggregate the request counts on the first IP address in an HTTP header. If you use this, configure the ForwardedIPConfig, to specify the header to use.

ScopeDownStatement

object

An optional nested statement that narrows the scope of the web requests that are evaluated and managed by the rate-based statement. When you use a scope-down statement, the rate-based rule only tracks and rate limits requests that match the scope-down statement. You can use any nestable Statement in the scope-down statement, and you can nest statements at any level, the same as you can for a rule statement.

ByteMatchStatement

object

A rule statement that defines a string match search for WAF to apply to web requests. The byte match statement provides the bytes to search for, the location in requests that you want WAF to search, and other settings. The bytes to search for are typically a string that corresponds with ASCII characters. In the WAF console and the developer guide, this is called a string match statement.

SearchString [required]

A string value that you want WAF to search for. WAF searches only in the part of web requests that you designate for inspection in FieldToMatch. The maximum length of the value is 50 bytes.
Valid values depend on the component that you specify for inspection in FieldToMatch:
Method: The HTTP method that you want WAF to search for. This indicates the type of operation specified in the request.
UriPath: The value that you want WAF to search for in the URI path, for example, /images/daily-ad.jpg.
If SearchString includes alphabetic characters A-Z and a-z, note that the value is case sensitive.

  • If you're using the WAF API
    Specify a base64-encoded version of the value. The maximum length of the value before you base64-encode it is 50 bytes. For example, suppose the value of Type is HEADER and the value of Data is User-Agent. If you want to search the User-Agent header for the value BadBot, you base64-encode BadBot using MIME base64-encoding and include the resulting value, QmFkQm90, in the value of SearchString.
  • If you're using the CLI or one of the Amazon Web Services SDKs
    The value that you want WAF to search for. The SDK automatically base64 encodes the value.

FieldToMatch [required]

object

The part of the web request that you want WAF to inspect. For more information, see FieldToMatch.

SingleHeader

object

Inspect a single header. Provide the name of the header to inspect, for example, User-Agent or Referer. This setting isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleHeader": { "Name": "haystack" }
Alternately, you can filter and inspect all headers with the Headers FieldToMatch setting.

Name [required]

string

The name of the query header to inspect.

SingleQueryArgument

object

Inspect a single query argument. Provide the name of the query argument to inspect, such as UserName or SalesRegion. The name can be up to 30 characters long and isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleQueryArgument": { "Name": "myArgument" }

Name [required]

string

The name of the query argument to inspect.

AllQueryArguments

object

Inspect all query arguments.

UriPath

object

Inspect the request URI path. This is the part of the web request that identifies a resource, for example, /images/daily-ad.jpg.

QueryString

object

Inspect the query string. This is the part of a URL that appears after a ? character, if any.

Body

object

Inspect the request body as plain text. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form. Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the Body object configuration.

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Method

object

Inspect the HTTP method. The method indicates the type of operation that the request is asking the origin to perform.

JsonBody

object

Inspect the request body as JSON. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the JsonBody object configuration.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The patterns to look for in the JSON body. WAF inspects the results of these pattern matches against the rule inspection criteria.

All

object

Match all of the elements. See also MatchScope in JsonBody.
You must specify either this setting or the IncludedPaths setting, but not both.

IncludedPaths

[string]

Match only the specified include paths. See also MatchScope in JsonBody.
Provide the include paths using JSON Pointer syntax. For example, "IncludedPaths": ["/dogs/0/name", "/dogs/1/name"]. For information about this syntax, see the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) documentation JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Pointer.
You must specify either this setting or the All setting, but not both.
Don't use this option to include all paths. Instead, use the All setting.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the JSON to match against using the MatchPattern. If you specify All, WAF matches against keys and values.

InvalidFallbackBehavior

string

What WAF should do if it fails to completely parse the JSON body. The options are the following:
EVALUATE_AS_STRING - Inspect the body as plain text. WAF applies the text transformations and inspection criteria that you defined for the JSON inspection to the body text string.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement. If you don't provide this setting, WAF parses and evaluates the content only up to the first parsing failure that it encounters. WAF does its best to parse the entire JSON body, but might be forced to stop for reasons such as invalid characters, duplicate keys, truncation, and any content whose root node isn't an object or an array.
WAF parses the JSON in the following examples as two valid key, value pairs:

  • Missing comma: {"key1":"value1""key2":"value2"}
  • Missing colon: {"key1":"value1","key2""value2"}
  • Extra colons: {"key1"::"value1","key2""value2"}

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Headers

object

Inspect the request headers. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Headers object, to define the set of headers to and the parts of the headers that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's headers and only the first 200 headers are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize header content in the Headers object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the headers that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of headers to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedHeaders, or ExcludedHeaders.
Example JSON: "HeaderMatchPattern": { "ExcludedHeaders": {"KeyToExclude1", "KeyToExclude2"} }

All

object

Inspect all headers.

IncludedHeaders

[string]

Inspect only the headers that have a key that matches one of the strings specified here.

ExcludedHeaders

[string]

Inspect only the headers whose keys don't match any of the strings specified here.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the headers to match with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

Cookies

object

Inspect the request cookies. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Cookies object, to define the set of cookies and the parts of the cookies that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's cookies and only the first 200 cookies are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize cookie content in the Cookies object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the cookies that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of cookies to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedCookies, or ExcludedCookies.
Example JSON: "CookieMatchPattern": { "IncludedCookies": {"KeyToInclude1", "KeyToInclude2", "KeyToInclude3"} }

All

object

Inspect all cookies.

IncludedCookies

[string]

Inspect only the cookies that have a key that matches one of the strings specified here.

ExcludedCookies

[string]

Inspect only the cookies whose keys don't match any of the strings specified here.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the cookies to inspect with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the cookies of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request cookies when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total cookies. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 cookies and at most 8 KB of cookie contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the cookies normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

HeaderOrder

object

Inspect a string containing the list of the request's header names, ordered as they appear in the web request that WAF receives for inspection. WAF generates the string and then uses that as the field to match component in its inspection. WAF separates the header names in the string using colons and no added spaces, for example host:user-agent:accept:authorization:referer.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are more numerous or larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF. The options for oversize handling are the following: CONTINUE - Inspect the available headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria. MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

JA3Fingerprint

object

Match against the request's JA3 fingerprint. The JA3 fingerprint is a 32-character hash derived from the TLS Client Hello of an incoming request. This fingerprint serves as a unique identifier for the client's TLS configuration. WAF calculates and logs this fingerprint for each request that has enough TLS Client Hello information for the calculation. Almost all web requests include this information. You can use this choice only with a string match ByteMatchStatement with the PositionalConstraint set to EXACTLY. You can obtain the JA3 fingerprint for client requests from the web ACL logs. If WAF is able to calculate the fingerprint, it includes it in the logs. For information about the logging fields, see Log fields in the WAF Developer Guide. Provide the JA3 fingerprint string from the logs in your string match statement specification, to match with any future requests that have the same TLS configuration.

FallbackBehavior [required]

string

The match status to assign to the web request if the request doesn't have a JA3 fingerprint. You can specify the following fallback behaviors: MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. If you specify one or more transformations in a rule statement, WAF performs all transformations on the content of the request component identified by FieldToMatch, starting from the lowest priority setting, before inspecting the content for a match.

Priority [required]

number

Sets the relative processing order for multiple transformations. WAF processes all transformations, from lowest priority to highest, before inspecting the transformed content. The priorities don't need to be consecutive, but they must all be different.

Type [required]

string

You can specify the following transformation types:
BASE64_DECODE - Decode a Base64-encoded string.
BASE64_DECODE_EXT - Decode a Base64-encoded string, but use a forgiving implementation that ignores characters that aren't valid.
CMD_LINE - Command-line transformations. These are helpful in reducing effectiveness of attackers who inject an operating system command-line command and use unusual formatting to disguise some or all of the command.

  • Delete the following characters: \ " ' ^
  • Delete spaces before the following characters: / (
  • Replace the following characters with a space: , ;
  • Replace multiple spaces with one space
  • Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z)

COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE - Replace these characters with a space character (decimal 32):

  • \f, formfeed, decimal 12
  • \t, tab, decimal 9
  • \n, newline, decimal 10
  • \r, carriage return, decimal 13
  • \v, vertical tab, decimal 11
  • Non-breaking space, decimal 160
    COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE also replaces multiple spaces with one space.

CSS_DECODE - Decode characters that were encoded using CSS 2.x escape rules syndata.html#characters. This function uses up to two bytes in the decoding process, so it can help to uncover ASCII characters that were encoded using CSS encoding that wouldn’t typically be encoded. It's also useful in countering evasion, which is a combination of a backslash and non-hexadecimal characters. For example, javascript for JavaScript.
ESCAPE_SEQ_DECODE - Decode the following ANSI C escape sequences: \a, \b, \f, \n, \r, \t, \v, \\, \?, \', \", \xHH (hexadecimal), \0OOO (octal). Encodings that aren't valid remain in the output.
HEX_DECODE - Decode a string of hexadecimal characters into a binary.
HTML_ENTITY_DECODE - Replace HTML-encoded characters with unencoded characters. HTML_ENTITY_DECODE performs these operations:

  • Replaces (ampersand)quot; with "
  • Replaces (ampersand)nbsp; with a non-breaking space, decimal 160
  • Replaces (ampersand)lt; with a < symbol
  • Replaces (ampersand)gt; with >
  • Replaces characters that are represented in hexadecimal format, (ampersand)#xhhhh;, with the corresponding characters
  • Replaces characters that are represented in decimal format, (ampersand)#nnnn;, with the corresponding characters

JS_DECODE - Decode JavaScript escape sequences. If a \ u HHHH code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, then the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. If not, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed, causing a possible loss of information.
LOWERCASE - Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z).
MD5 - Calculate an MD5 hash from the data in the input. The computed hash is in a raw binary form.
NONE - Specify NONE if you don't want any text transformations.
NORMALIZE_PATH - Remove multiple slashes, directory self-references, and directory back-references that are not at the beginning of the input from an input string.
NORMALIZE_PATH_WIN - This is the same as NORMALIZE_PATH, but first converts backslash characters to forward slashes.
REMOVE_NULLS - Remove all NULL bytes from the input.
REPLACE_COMMENTS - Replace each occurrence of a C-style comment (/* ... */) with a single space. Multiple consecutive occurrences are not compressed. Unterminated comments are also replaced with a space (ASCII 0x20). However, a standalone termination of a comment (*/) is not acted upon.
REPLACE_NULLS - Replace NULL bytes in the input with space characters (ASCII 0x20).
SQL_HEX_DECODE - Decode SQL hex data. Example (0x414243) will be decoded to (ABC).
URL_DECODE - Decode a URL-encoded value.
URL_DECODE_UNI - Like URL_DECODE, but with support for Microsoft-specific %u encoding. If the code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. Otherwise, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed.
UTF8_TO_UNICODE - Convert all UTF-8 character sequences to Unicode. This helps input normalization, and minimizing false-positives and false-negatives for non-English languages.

PositionalConstraint [required]

string

The area within the portion of the web request that you want WAF to search for SearchString. Valid values include the following:
CONTAINS
The specified part of the web request must include the value of SearchString, but the location doesn't matter.
CONTAINS_WORD
The specified part of the web request must include the value of SearchString, and SearchString must contain only alphanumeric characters or underscore (A-Z, a-z, 0-9, or _). In addition, SearchString must be a word, which means that both of the following are true:

  • SearchString is at the beginning of the specified part of the web request or is preceded by a character other than an alphanumeric character or underscore (_). Examples include the value of a header and ;BadBot.
  • SearchString is at the end of the specified part of the web request or is followed by a character other than an alphanumeric character or underscore (_), for example, BadBot; and -BadBot;.

EXACTLY
The value of the specified part of the web request must exactly match the value of SearchString.
STARTS_WITH
The value of SearchString must appear at the beginning of the specified part of the web request.
ENDS_WITH
The value of SearchString must appear at the end of the specified part of the web request.

SqliMatchStatement

object

A rule statement that inspects for malicious SQL code. Attackers insert malicious SQL code into web requests to do things like modify your database or extract data from it.

FieldToMatch [required]

object

The part of the web request that you want WAF to inspect. For more information, see FieldToMatch.

SingleHeader

object

Inspect a single header. Provide the name of the header to inspect, for example, User-Agent or Referer. This setting isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleHeader": { "Name": "haystack" }
Alternately, you can filter and inspect all headers with the Headers FieldToMatch setting.

Name [required]

string

The name of the query header to inspect.

SingleQueryArgument

object

Inspect a single query argument. Provide the name of the query argument to inspect, such as UserName or SalesRegion. The name can be up to 30 characters long and isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleQueryArgument": { "Name": "myArgument" }

Name [required]

string

The name of the query argument to inspect.

AllQueryArguments

object

Inspect all query arguments.

UriPath

object

Inspect the request URI path. This is the part of the web request that identifies a resource, for example, /images/daily-ad.jpg.

QueryString

object

Inspect the query string. This is the part of a URL that appears after a ? character, if any.

Body

object

Inspect the request body as plain text. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form. Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the Body object configuration.

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Method

object

Inspect the HTTP method. The method indicates the type of operation that the request is asking the origin to perform.

JsonBody

object

Inspect the request body as JSON. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the JsonBody object configuration.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The patterns to look for in the JSON body. WAF inspects the results of these pattern matches against the rule inspection criteria.

All

object

Match all of the elements. See also MatchScope in JsonBody.
You must specify either this setting or the IncludedPaths setting, but not both.

IncludedPaths

[string]

Match only the specified include paths. See also MatchScope in JsonBody.
Provide the include paths using JSON Pointer syntax. For example, "IncludedPaths": ["/dogs/0/name", "/dogs/1/name"]. For information about this syntax, see the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) documentation JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Pointer.
You must specify either this setting or the All setting, but not both.
Don't use this option to include all paths. Instead, use the All setting.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the JSON to match against using the MatchPattern. If you specify All, WAF matches against keys and values.

InvalidFallbackBehavior

string

What WAF should do if it fails to completely parse the JSON body. The options are the following:
EVALUATE_AS_STRING - Inspect the body as plain text. WAF applies the text transformations and inspection criteria that you defined for the JSON inspection to the body text string.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement. If you don't provide this setting, WAF parses and evaluates the content only up to the first parsing failure that it encounters. WAF does its best to parse the entire JSON body, but might be forced to stop for reasons such as invalid characters, duplicate keys, truncation, and any content whose root node isn't an object or an array.
WAF parses the JSON in the following examples as two valid key, value pairs:

  • Missing comma: {"key1":"value1""key2":"value2"}
  • Missing colon: {"key1":"value1","key2""value2"}
  • Extra colons: {"key1"::"value1","key2""value2"}

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Headers

object

Inspect the request headers. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Headers object, to define the set of headers to and the parts of the headers that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's headers and only the first 200 headers are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize header content in the Headers object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the headers that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of headers to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedHeaders, or ExcludedHeaders.
Example JSON: "HeaderMatchPattern": { "ExcludedHeaders": {"KeyToExclude1", "KeyToExclude2"} }

All

object

Inspect all headers.

IncludedHeaders

[string]

Inspect only the headers that have a key that matches one of the strings specified here.

ExcludedHeaders

[string]

Inspect only the headers whose keys don't match any of the strings specified here.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the headers to match with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

Cookies

object

Inspect the request cookies. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Cookies object, to define the set of cookies and the parts of the cookies that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's cookies and only the first 200 cookies are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize cookie content in the Cookies object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the cookies that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of cookies to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedCookies, or ExcludedCookies.
Example JSON: "CookieMatchPattern": { "IncludedCookies": {"KeyToInclude1", "KeyToInclude2", "KeyToInclude3"} }

All

object

Inspect all cookies.

IncludedCookies

[string]

Inspect only the cookies that have a key that matches one of the strings specified here.

ExcludedCookies

[string]

Inspect only the cookies whose keys don't match any of the strings specified here.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the cookies to inspect with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the cookies of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request cookies when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total cookies. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 cookies and at most 8 KB of cookie contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the cookies normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

HeaderOrder

object

Inspect a string containing the list of the request's header names, ordered as they appear in the web request that WAF receives for inspection. WAF generates the string and then uses that as the field to match component in its inspection. WAF separates the header names in the string using colons and no added spaces, for example host:user-agent:accept:authorization:referer.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are more numerous or larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF. The options for oversize handling are the following: CONTINUE - Inspect the available headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria. MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

JA3Fingerprint

object

Match against the request's JA3 fingerprint. The JA3 fingerprint is a 32-character hash derived from the TLS Client Hello of an incoming request. This fingerprint serves as a unique identifier for the client's TLS configuration. WAF calculates and logs this fingerprint for each request that has enough TLS Client Hello information for the calculation. Almost all web requests include this information. You can use this choice only with a string match ByteMatchStatement with the PositionalConstraint set to EXACTLY. You can obtain the JA3 fingerprint for client requests from the web ACL logs. If WAF is able to calculate the fingerprint, it includes it in the logs. For information about the logging fields, see Log fields in the WAF Developer Guide. Provide the JA3 fingerprint string from the logs in your string match statement specification, to match with any future requests that have the same TLS configuration.

FallbackBehavior [required]

string

The match status to assign to the web request if the request doesn't have a JA3 fingerprint. You can specify the following fallback behaviors: MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. If you specify one or more transformations in a rule statement, WAF performs all transformations on the content of the request component identified by FieldToMatch, starting from the lowest priority setting, before inspecting the content for a match.

Priority [required]

number

Sets the relative processing order for multiple transformations. WAF processes all transformations, from lowest priority to highest, before inspecting the transformed content. The priorities don't need to be consecutive, but they must all be different.

Type [required]

string

You can specify the following transformation types:
BASE64_DECODE - Decode a Base64-encoded string.
BASE64_DECODE_EXT - Decode a Base64-encoded string, but use a forgiving implementation that ignores characters that aren't valid.
CMD_LINE - Command-line transformations. These are helpful in reducing effectiveness of attackers who inject an operating system command-line command and use unusual formatting to disguise some or all of the command.

  • Delete the following characters: \ " ' ^
  • Delete spaces before the following characters: / (
  • Replace the following characters with a space: , ;
  • Replace multiple spaces with one space
  • Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z)

COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE - Replace these characters with a space character (decimal 32):

  • \f, formfeed, decimal 12
  • \t, tab, decimal 9
  • \n, newline, decimal 10
  • \r, carriage return, decimal 13
  • \v, vertical tab, decimal 11
  • Non-breaking space, decimal 160
    COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE also replaces multiple spaces with one space.

CSS_DECODE - Decode characters that were encoded using CSS 2.x escape rules syndata.html#characters. This function uses up to two bytes in the decoding process, so it can help to uncover ASCII characters that were encoded using CSS encoding that wouldn’t typically be encoded. It's also useful in countering evasion, which is a combination of a backslash and non-hexadecimal characters. For example, javascript for JavaScript.
ESCAPE_SEQ_DECODE - Decode the following ANSI C escape sequences: \a, \b, \f, \n, \r, \t, \v, \\, \?, \', \", \xHH (hexadecimal), \0OOO (octal). Encodings that aren't valid remain in the output.
HEX_DECODE - Decode a string of hexadecimal characters into a binary.
HTML_ENTITY_DECODE - Replace HTML-encoded characters with unencoded characters. HTML_ENTITY_DECODE performs these operations:

  • Replaces (ampersand)quot; with "
  • Replaces (ampersand)nbsp; with a non-breaking space, decimal 160
  • Replaces (ampersand)lt; with a < symbol
  • Replaces (ampersand)gt; with >
  • Replaces characters that are represented in hexadecimal format, (ampersand)#xhhhh;, with the corresponding characters
  • Replaces characters that are represented in decimal format, (ampersand)#nnnn;, with the corresponding characters

JS_DECODE - Decode JavaScript escape sequences. If a \ u HHHH code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, then the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. If not, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed, causing a possible loss of information.
LOWERCASE - Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z).
MD5 - Calculate an MD5 hash from the data in the input. The computed hash is in a raw binary form.
NONE - Specify NONE if you don't want any text transformations.
NORMALIZE_PATH - Remove multiple slashes, directory self-references, and directory back-references that are not at the beginning of the input from an input string.
NORMALIZE_PATH_WIN - This is the same as NORMALIZE_PATH, but first converts backslash characters to forward slashes.
REMOVE_NULLS - Remove all NULL bytes from the input.
REPLACE_COMMENTS - Replace each occurrence of a C-style comment (/* ... */) with a single space. Multiple consecutive occurrences are not compressed. Unterminated comments are also replaced with a space (ASCII 0x20). However, a standalone termination of a comment (*/) is not acted upon.
REPLACE_NULLS - Replace NULL bytes in the input with space characters (ASCII 0x20).
SQL_HEX_DECODE - Decode SQL hex data. Example (0x414243) will be decoded to (ABC).
URL_DECODE - Decode a URL-encoded value.
URL_DECODE_UNI - Like URL_DECODE, but with support for Microsoft-specific %u encoding. If the code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. Otherwise, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed.
UTF8_TO_UNICODE - Convert all UTF-8 character sequences to Unicode. This helps input normalization, and minimizing false-positives and false-negatives for non-English languages.

SensitivityLevel

string

The sensitivity that you want WAF to use to inspect for SQL injection attacks. HIGH detects more attacks, but might generate more false positives, especially if your web requests frequently contain unusual strings. For information about identifying and mitigating false positives, see Testing and tuning in the WAF Developer Guide. LOW is generally a better choice for resources that already have other protections against SQL injection attacks or that have a low tolerance for false positives. Default: LOW

XssMatchStatement

object

A rule statement that inspects for cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks. In XSS attacks, the attacker uses vulnerabilities in a benign website as a vehicle to inject malicious client-site scripts into other legitimate web browsers.

FieldToMatch [required]

object

The part of the web request that you want WAF to inspect. For more information, see FieldToMatch.

SingleHeader

object

Inspect a single header. Provide the name of the header to inspect, for example, User-Agent or Referer. This setting isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleHeader": { "Name": "haystack" }
Alternately, you can filter and inspect all headers with the Headers FieldToMatch setting.

Name [required]

string

The name of the query header to inspect.

SingleQueryArgument

object

Inspect a single query argument. Provide the name of the query argument to inspect, such as UserName or SalesRegion. The name can be up to 30 characters long and isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleQueryArgument": { "Name": "myArgument" }

Name [required]

string

The name of the query argument to inspect.

AllQueryArguments

object

Inspect all query arguments.

UriPath

object

Inspect the request URI path. This is the part of the web request that identifies a resource, for example, /images/daily-ad.jpg.

QueryString

object

Inspect the query string. This is the part of a URL that appears after a ? character, if any.

Body

object

Inspect the request body as plain text. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form. Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the Body object configuration.

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Method

object

Inspect the HTTP method. The method indicates the type of operation that the request is asking the origin to perform.

JsonBody

object

Inspect the request body as JSON. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the JsonBody object configuration.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The patterns to look for in the JSON body. WAF inspects the results of these pattern matches against the rule inspection criteria.

All

object

Match all of the elements. See also MatchScope in JsonBody.
You must specify either this setting or the IncludedPaths setting, but not both.

IncludedPaths

[string]

Match only the specified include paths. See also MatchScope in JsonBody.
Provide the include paths using JSON Pointer syntax. For example, "IncludedPaths": ["/dogs/0/name", "/dogs/1/name"]. For information about this syntax, see the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) documentation JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Pointer.
You must specify either this setting or the All setting, but not both.
Don't use this option to include all paths. Instead, use the All setting.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the JSON to match against using the MatchPattern. If you specify All, WAF matches against keys and values.

InvalidFallbackBehavior

string

What WAF should do if it fails to completely parse the JSON body. The options are the following:
EVALUATE_AS_STRING - Inspect the body as plain text. WAF applies the text transformations and inspection criteria that you defined for the JSON inspection to the body text string.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement. If you don't provide this setting, WAF parses and evaluates the content only up to the first parsing failure that it encounters. WAF does its best to parse the entire JSON body, but might be forced to stop for reasons such as invalid characters, duplicate keys, truncation, and any content whose root node isn't an object or an array.
WAF parses the JSON in the following examples as two valid key, value pairs:

  • Missing comma: {"key1":"value1""key2":"value2"}
  • Missing colon: {"key1":"value1","key2""value2"}
  • Extra colons: {"key1"::"value1","key2""value2"}

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Headers

object

Inspect the request headers. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Headers object, to define the set of headers to and the parts of the headers that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's headers and only the first 200 headers are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize header content in the Headers object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the headers that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of headers to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedHeaders, or ExcludedHeaders.
Example JSON: "HeaderMatchPattern": { "ExcludedHeaders": {"KeyToExclude1", "KeyToExclude2"} }

All

object

Inspect all headers.

IncludedHeaders

[string]

Inspect only the headers that have a key that matches one of the strings specified here.

ExcludedHeaders

[string]

Inspect only the headers whose keys don't match any of the strings specified here.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the headers to match with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

Cookies

object

Inspect the request cookies. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Cookies object, to define the set of cookies and the parts of the cookies that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's cookies and only the first 200 cookies are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize cookie content in the Cookies object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the cookies that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of cookies to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedCookies, or ExcludedCookies.
Example JSON: "CookieMatchPattern": { "IncludedCookies": {"KeyToInclude1", "KeyToInclude2", "KeyToInclude3"} }

All

object

Inspect all cookies.

IncludedCookies

[string]

Inspect only the cookies that have a key that matches one of the strings specified here.

ExcludedCookies

[string]

Inspect only the cookies whose keys don't match any of the strings specified here.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the cookies to inspect with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the cookies of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request cookies when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total cookies. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 cookies and at most 8 KB of cookie contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the cookies normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

HeaderOrder

object

Inspect a string containing the list of the request's header names, ordered as they appear in the web request that WAF receives for inspection. WAF generates the string and then uses that as the field to match component in its inspection. WAF separates the header names in the string using colons and no added spaces, for example host:user-agent:accept:authorization:referer.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are more numerous or larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF. The options for oversize handling are the following: CONTINUE - Inspect the available headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria. MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

JA3Fingerprint

object

Match against the request's JA3 fingerprint. The JA3 fingerprint is a 32-character hash derived from the TLS Client Hello of an incoming request. This fingerprint serves as a unique identifier for the client's TLS configuration. WAF calculates and logs this fingerprint for each request that has enough TLS Client Hello information for the calculation. Almost all web requests include this information. You can use this choice only with a string match ByteMatchStatement with the PositionalConstraint set to EXACTLY. You can obtain the JA3 fingerprint for client requests from the web ACL logs. If WAF is able to calculate the fingerprint, it includes it in the logs. For information about the logging fields, see Log fields in the WAF Developer Guide. Provide the JA3 fingerprint string from the logs in your string match statement specification, to match with any future requests that have the same TLS configuration.

FallbackBehavior [required]

string

The match status to assign to the web request if the request doesn't have a JA3 fingerprint. You can specify the following fallback behaviors: MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. If you specify one or more transformations in a rule statement, WAF performs all transformations on the content of the request component identified by FieldToMatch, starting from the lowest priority setting, before inspecting the content for a match.

Priority [required]

number

Sets the relative processing order for multiple transformations. WAF processes all transformations, from lowest priority to highest, before inspecting the transformed content. The priorities don't need to be consecutive, but they must all be different.

Type [required]

string

You can specify the following transformation types:
BASE64_DECODE - Decode a Base64-encoded string.
BASE64_DECODE_EXT - Decode a Base64-encoded string, but use a forgiving implementation that ignores characters that aren't valid.
CMD_LINE - Command-line transformations. These are helpful in reducing effectiveness of attackers who inject an operating system command-line command and use unusual formatting to disguise some or all of the command.

  • Delete the following characters: \ " ' ^
  • Delete spaces before the following characters: / (
  • Replace the following characters with a space: , ;
  • Replace multiple spaces with one space
  • Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z)

COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE - Replace these characters with a space character (decimal 32):

  • \f, formfeed, decimal 12
  • \t, tab, decimal 9
  • \n, newline, decimal 10
  • \r, carriage return, decimal 13
  • \v, vertical tab, decimal 11
  • Non-breaking space, decimal 160
    COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE also replaces multiple spaces with one space.

CSS_DECODE - Decode characters that were encoded using CSS 2.x escape rules syndata.html#characters. This function uses up to two bytes in the decoding process, so it can help to uncover ASCII characters that were encoded using CSS encoding that wouldn’t typically be encoded. It's also useful in countering evasion, which is a combination of a backslash and non-hexadecimal characters. For example, javascript for JavaScript.
ESCAPE_SEQ_DECODE - Decode the following ANSI C escape sequences: \a, \b, \f, \n, \r, \t, \v, \\, \?, \', \", \xHH (hexadecimal), \0OOO (octal). Encodings that aren't valid remain in the output.
HEX_DECODE - Decode a string of hexadecimal characters into a binary.
HTML_ENTITY_DECODE - Replace HTML-encoded characters with unencoded characters. HTML_ENTITY_DECODE performs these operations:

  • Replaces (ampersand)quot; with "
  • Replaces (ampersand)nbsp; with a non-breaking space, decimal 160
  • Replaces (ampersand)lt; with a < symbol
  • Replaces (ampersand)gt; with >
  • Replaces characters that are represented in hexadecimal format, (ampersand)#xhhhh;, with the corresponding characters
  • Replaces characters that are represented in decimal format, (ampersand)#nnnn;, with the corresponding characters

JS_DECODE - Decode JavaScript escape sequences. If a \ u HHHH code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, then the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. If not, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed, causing a possible loss of information.
LOWERCASE - Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z).
MD5 - Calculate an MD5 hash from the data in the input. The computed hash is in a raw binary form.
NONE - Specify NONE if you don't want any text transformations.
NORMALIZE_PATH - Remove multiple slashes, directory self-references, and directory back-references that are not at the beginning of the input from an input string.
NORMALIZE_PATH_WIN - This is the same as NORMALIZE_PATH, but first converts backslash characters to forward slashes.
REMOVE_NULLS - Remove all NULL bytes from the input.
REPLACE_COMMENTS - Replace each occurrence of a C-style comment (/* ... */) with a single space. Multiple consecutive occurrences are not compressed. Unterminated comments are also replaced with a space (ASCII 0x20). However, a standalone termination of a comment (*/) is not acted upon.
REPLACE_NULLS - Replace NULL bytes in the input with space characters (ASCII 0x20).
SQL_HEX_DECODE - Decode SQL hex data. Example (0x414243) will be decoded to (ABC).
URL_DECODE - Decode a URL-encoded value.
URL_DECODE_UNI - Like URL_DECODE, but with support for Microsoft-specific %u encoding. If the code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. Otherwise, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed.
UTF8_TO_UNICODE - Convert all UTF-8 character sequences to Unicode. This helps input normalization, and minimizing false-positives and false-negatives for non-English languages.

SizeConstraintStatement

object

A rule statement that compares a number of bytes against the size of a request component, using a comparison operator, such as greater than (>) or less than (<). For example, you can use a size constraint statement to look for query strings that are longer than 100 bytes.
If you configure WAF to inspect the request body, WAF inspects only the first 8192 bytes (8 KB). If the request body for your web requests never exceeds 8192 bytes, you can create a size constraint condition and block requests that have a request body greater than 8192 bytes.
If you choose URI for the value of Part of the request to filter on, the slash (/) in the URI counts as one character. For example, the URI /logo.jpg is nine characters long.

FieldToMatch [required]

object

The part of the web request that you want WAF to inspect. For more information, see FieldToMatch.

SingleHeader

object

Inspect a single header. Provide the name of the header to inspect, for example, User-Agent or Referer. This setting isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleHeader": { "Name": "haystack" }
Alternately, you can filter and inspect all headers with the Headers FieldToMatch setting.

Name [required]

string

The name of the query header to inspect.

SingleQueryArgument

object

Inspect a single query argument. Provide the name of the query argument to inspect, such as UserName or SalesRegion. The name can be up to 30 characters long and isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleQueryArgument": { "Name": "myArgument" }

Name [required]

string

The name of the query argument to inspect.

AllQueryArguments

object

Inspect all query arguments.

UriPath

object

Inspect the request URI path. This is the part of the web request that identifies a resource, for example, /images/daily-ad.jpg.

QueryString

object

Inspect the query string. This is the part of a URL that appears after a ? character, if any.

Body

object

Inspect the request body as plain text. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form. Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the Body object configuration.

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Method

object

Inspect the HTTP method. The method indicates the type of operation that the request is asking the origin to perform.

JsonBody

object

Inspect the request body as JSON. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the JsonBody object configuration.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The patterns to look for in the JSON body. WAF inspects the results of these pattern matches against the rule inspection criteria.

All

object

Match all of the elements. See also MatchScope in JsonBody.
You must specify either this setting or the IncludedPaths setting, but not both.

IncludedPaths

[string]

Match only the specified include paths. See also MatchScope in JsonBody.
Provide the include paths using JSON Pointer syntax. For example, "IncludedPaths": ["/dogs/0/name", "/dogs/1/name"]. For information about this syntax, see the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) documentation JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Pointer.
You must specify either this setting or the All setting, but not both.
Don't use this option to include all paths. Instead, use the All setting.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the JSON to match against using the MatchPattern. If you specify All, WAF matches against keys and values.

InvalidFallbackBehavior

string

What WAF should do if it fails to completely parse the JSON body. The options are the following:
EVALUATE_AS_STRING - Inspect the body as plain text. WAF applies the text transformations and inspection criteria that you defined for the JSON inspection to the body text string.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement. If you don't provide this setting, WAF parses and evaluates the content only up to the first parsing failure that it encounters. WAF does its best to parse the entire JSON body, but might be forced to stop for reasons such as invalid characters, duplicate keys, truncation, and any content whose root node isn't an object or an array.
WAF parses the JSON in the following examples as two valid key, value pairs:

  • Missing comma: {"key1":"value1""key2":"value2"}
  • Missing colon: {"key1":"value1","key2""value2"}
  • Extra colons: {"key1"::"value1","key2""value2"}

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Headers

object

Inspect the request headers. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Headers object, to define the set of headers to and the parts of the headers that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's headers and only the first 200 headers are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize header content in the Headers object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the headers that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of headers to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedHeaders, or ExcludedHeaders.
Example JSON: "HeaderMatchPattern": { "ExcludedHeaders": {"KeyToExclude1", "KeyToExclude2"} }

All

object

Inspect all headers.

IncludedHeaders

[string]

Inspect only the headers that have a key that matches one of the strings specified here.

ExcludedHeaders

[string]

Inspect only the headers whose keys don't match any of the strings specified here.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the headers to match with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

Cookies

object

Inspect the request cookies. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Cookies object, to define the set of cookies and the parts of the cookies that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's cookies and only the first 200 cookies are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize cookie content in the Cookies object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the cookies that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of cookies to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedCookies, or ExcludedCookies.
Example JSON: "CookieMatchPattern": { "IncludedCookies": {"KeyToInclude1", "KeyToInclude2", "KeyToInclude3"} }

All

object

Inspect all cookies.

IncludedCookies

[string]

Inspect only the cookies that have a key that matches one of the strings specified here.

ExcludedCookies

[string]

Inspect only the cookies whose keys don't match any of the strings specified here.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the cookies to inspect with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the cookies of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request cookies when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total cookies. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 cookies and at most 8 KB of cookie contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the cookies normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

HeaderOrder

object

Inspect a string containing the list of the request's header names, ordered as they appear in the web request that WAF receives for inspection. WAF generates the string and then uses that as the field to match component in its inspection. WAF separates the header names in the string using colons and no added spaces, for example host:user-agent:accept:authorization:referer.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are more numerous or larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF. The options for oversize handling are the following: CONTINUE - Inspect the available headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria. MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

JA3Fingerprint

object

Match against the request's JA3 fingerprint. The JA3 fingerprint is a 32-character hash derived from the TLS Client Hello of an incoming request. This fingerprint serves as a unique identifier for the client's TLS configuration. WAF calculates and logs this fingerprint for each request that has enough TLS Client Hello information for the calculation. Almost all web requests include this information. You can use this choice only with a string match ByteMatchStatement with the PositionalConstraint set to EXACTLY. You can obtain the JA3 fingerprint for client requests from the web ACL logs. If WAF is able to calculate the fingerprint, it includes it in the logs. For information about the logging fields, see Log fields in the WAF Developer Guide. Provide the JA3 fingerprint string from the logs in your string match statement specification, to match with any future requests that have the same TLS configuration.

FallbackBehavior [required]

string

The match status to assign to the web request if the request doesn't have a JA3 fingerprint. You can specify the following fallback behaviors: MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

ComparisonOperator [required]

string

The operator to use to compare the request part to the size setting.

Size [required]

number

The size, in byte, to compare to the request part, after any transformations.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. If you specify one or more transformations in a rule statement, WAF performs all transformations on the content of the request component identified by FieldToMatch, starting from the lowest priority setting, before inspecting the content for a match.

Priority [required]

number

Sets the relative processing order for multiple transformations. WAF processes all transformations, from lowest priority to highest, before inspecting the transformed content. The priorities don't need to be consecutive, but they must all be different.

Type [required]

string

You can specify the following transformation types:
BASE64_DECODE - Decode a Base64-encoded string.
BASE64_DECODE_EXT - Decode a Base64-encoded string, but use a forgiving implementation that ignores characters that aren't valid.
CMD_LINE - Command-line transformations. These are helpful in reducing effectiveness of attackers who inject an operating system command-line command and use unusual formatting to disguise some or all of the command.

  • Delete the following characters: \ " ' ^
  • Delete spaces before the following characters: / (
  • Replace the following characters with a space: , ;
  • Replace multiple spaces with one space
  • Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z)

COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE - Replace these characters with a space character (decimal 32):

  • \f, formfeed, decimal 12
  • \t, tab, decimal 9
  • \n, newline, decimal 10
  • \r, carriage return, decimal 13
  • \v, vertical tab, decimal 11
  • Non-breaking space, decimal 160
    COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE also replaces multiple spaces with one space.

CSS_DECODE - Decode characters that were encoded using CSS 2.x escape rules syndata.html#characters. This function uses up to two bytes in the decoding process, so it can help to uncover ASCII characters that were encoded using CSS encoding that wouldn’t typically be encoded. It's also useful in countering evasion, which is a combination of a backslash and non-hexadecimal characters. For example, javascript for JavaScript.
ESCAPE_SEQ_DECODE - Decode the following ANSI C escape sequences: \a, \b, \f, \n, \r, \t, \v, \\, \?, \', \", \xHH (hexadecimal), \0OOO (octal). Encodings that aren't valid remain in the output.
HEX_DECODE - Decode a string of hexadecimal characters into a binary.
HTML_ENTITY_DECODE - Replace HTML-encoded characters with unencoded characters. HTML_ENTITY_DECODE performs these operations:

  • Replaces (ampersand)quot; with "
  • Replaces (ampersand)nbsp; with a non-breaking space, decimal 160
  • Replaces (ampersand)lt; with a < symbol
  • Replaces (ampersand)gt; with >
  • Replaces characters that are represented in hexadecimal format, (ampersand)#xhhhh;, with the corresponding characters
  • Replaces characters that are represented in decimal format, (ampersand)#nnnn;, with the corresponding characters

JS_DECODE - Decode JavaScript escape sequences. If a \ u HHHH code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, then the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. If not, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed, causing a possible loss of information.
LOWERCASE - Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z).
MD5 - Calculate an MD5 hash from the data in the input. The computed hash is in a raw binary form.
NONE - Specify NONE if you don't want any text transformations.
NORMALIZE_PATH - Remove multiple slashes, directory self-references, and directory back-references that are not at the beginning of the input from an input string.
NORMALIZE_PATH_WIN - This is the same as NORMALIZE_PATH, but first converts backslash characters to forward slashes.
REMOVE_NULLS - Remove all NULL bytes from the input.
REPLACE_COMMENTS - Replace each occurrence of a C-style comment (/* ... */) with a single space. Multiple consecutive occurrences are not compressed. Unterminated comments are also replaced with a space (ASCII 0x20). However, a standalone termination of a comment (*/) is not acted upon.
REPLACE_NULLS - Replace NULL bytes in the input with space characters (ASCII 0x20).
SQL_HEX_DECODE - Decode SQL hex data. Example (0x414243) will be decoded to (ABC).
URL_DECODE - Decode a URL-encoded value.
URL_DECODE_UNI - Like URL_DECODE, but with support for Microsoft-specific %u encoding. If the code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. Otherwise, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed.
UTF8_TO_UNICODE - Convert all UTF-8 character sequences to Unicode. This helps input normalization, and minimizing false-positives and false-negatives for non-English languages.

GeoMatchStatement

object

A rule statement that labels web requests by country and region and that matches against web requests based on country code. A geo match rule labels every request that it inspects regardless of whether it finds a match. To manage requests only by country, you can use this statement by itself and specify the countries that you want to match against in the CountryCodes array. Otherwise, configure your geo match rule with Count action so that it only labels requests. Then, add one or more label match rules to run after the geo match rule and configure them to match against the geographic labels and handle the requests as needed. WAF labels requests using the alpha-2 country and region codes from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 3166 standard. WAF determines the codes using either the IP address in the web request origin or, if you specify it, the address in the geo match ForwardedIPConfig. If you use the web request origin, the label formats are awswaf:clientip:geo:region:<ISO country code>-<ISO region code> and awswaf:clientip:geo:country:<ISO country code>. If you use a forwarded IP address, the label formats are awswaf:forwardedip:geo:region:<ISO country code>-<ISO region code> and awswaf:forwardedip:geo:country:<ISO country code>. For additional details, see Geographic match rule statement in the WAF Developer Guide.

CountryCodes

[string]

An array of two-character country codes, for example, [ "US", "CN" ], from the alpha-2 country ISO codes of the ISO 3166 international standard.

ForwardedIPConfig

object

The configuration for inspecting IP addresses in an HTTP header that you specify, instead of using the IP address that's reported by the web request origin. Commonly, this is the X-Forwarded-For (XFF) header, but you can specify any header name. If the specified header isn't present in the request, WAF doesn't apply the rule to the web request at all.

HeaderName [required]

string

The name of the HTTP header to use for the IP address. For example, to use the X-Forwarded-For (XFF) header, set this to X-Forwarded-For. If the specified header isn't present in the request, WAF doesn't apply the rule to the web request at all.

FallbackBehavior [required]

string

The match status to assign to the web request if the request doesn't have a valid IP address in the specified position.
If the specified header isn't present in the request, WAF doesn't apply the rule to the web request at all.
You can specify the following fallback behaviors:
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

RuleGroupReferenceStatement

object

A rule statement used to run the rules that are defined in a RuleGroup. To use this, create a rule group with your rules, then provide the ARN of the rule group in this statement.
You cannot nest a RuleGroupReferenceStatement, for example for use inside a NotStatement or OrStatement. You can only use a rule group reference statement at the top level inside a web ACL.

ARN [required]

string

The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the entity.

ExcludedRules

[object]

The rules in the referenced rule group whose actions are set to Count. When you exclude a rule, WAF evaluates it exactly as it would if the rule action setting were Count. This is a useful option for testing the rules in a rule group without modifying how they handle your web traffic.

Name [required]

string

The name of the rule whose action you want to override to Count.

RuleActionOverrides

[object]

Action settings to use in the place of the rule actions that are configured inside the rule group. You specify one override for each rule whose action you want to change. You can use overrides for testing, for example you can override all of rule actions to Count and then monitor the resulting count metrics to understand how the rule group would handle your web traffic. You can also permanently override some or all actions, to modify how the rule group manages your web traffic.

Name [required]

string

The name of the rule to override.

ActionToUse [required]

object

The override action to use, in place of the configured action of the rule in the rule group.

Block

object

Instructs WAF to block the web request.

CustomResponse

object

Defines a custom response for the web request.
For information about customizing web requests and responses, see Customized web requests and responses in WAF in the WAF Developer Guide.

ResponseCode [required]

number

The HTTP status code to return to the client.
For a list of status codes that you can use in your custom responses, see Supported status codes for custom response in the WAF Developer Guide.

CustomResponseBodyKey

string

References the response body that you want WAF to return to the web request client. You can define a custom response for a rule action or a default web ACL action that is set to block. To do this, you first define the response body key and value in the CustomResponseBodies setting for the WebACL or RuleGroup where you want to use it. Then, in the rule action or web ACL default action BlockAction setting, you reference the response body using this key.

ResponseHeaders

[object]

The HTTP headers to use in the response. Duplicate header names are not allowed.
For information about the limits on count and size for custom request and response settings, see WAF quotas in the WAF Developer Guide.

Allow

object

Instructs WAF to allow the web request.

CustomRequestHandling

object

Defines custom handling for the web request.
For information about customizing web requests and responses, see Customized web requests and responses in WAF in the WAF Developer Guide.

InsertHeaders [required]

[object]

The HTTP headers to insert into the request. Duplicate header names are not allowed.
For information about the limits on count and size for custom request and response settings, see WAF quotas in the WAF Developer Guide.

Count

object

Instructs WAF to count the web request and then continue evaluating the request using the remaining rules in the web ACL.

CustomRequestHandling

object

Defines custom handling for the web request.
For information about customizing web requests and responses, see Customized web requests and responses in WAF in the WAF Developer Guide.

InsertHeaders [required]

[object]

The HTTP headers to insert into the request. Duplicate header names are not allowed.
For information about the limits on count and size for custom request and response settings, see WAF quotas in the WAF Developer Guide.

Captcha

object

Instructs WAF to run a CAPTCHA check against the web request.

CustomRequestHandling

object

Defines custom handling for the web request.
For information about customizing web requests and responses, see Customized web requests and responses in WAF in the WAF Developer Guide.

InsertHeaders [required]

[object]

The HTTP headers to insert into the request. Duplicate header names are not allowed.
For information about the limits on count and size for custom request and response settings, see WAF quotas in the WAF Developer Guide.

Challenge

object

Instructs WAF to run a Challenge check against the web request.

CustomRequestHandling

object

Defines custom handling for the web request, used when the challenge inspection determines that the request's token is valid and unexpired. For information about customizing web requests and responses, see Customizing web requests and responses in WAF in the WAF Developer Guide.

InsertHeaders [required]

[object]

The HTTP headers to insert into the request. Duplicate header names are not allowed.
For information about the limits on count and size for custom request and response settings, see WAF quotas in the WAF Developer Guide.

IPSetReferenceStatement

object

A rule statement used to detect web requests coming from particular IP addresses or address ranges. To use this, create an IPSet that specifies the addresses you want to detect, then use the ARN of that set in this statement. To create an IP set, see CreateIPSet. Each IP set rule statement references an IP set. You create and maintain the set independent of your rules. This allows you to use the single set in multiple rules. When you update the referenced set, WAF automatically updates all rules that reference it.

ARN [required]

string

The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the IPSet that this statement references.

IPSetForwardedIPConfig

object

The configuration for inspecting IP addresses in an HTTP header that you specify, instead of using the IP address that's reported by the web request origin. Commonly, this is the X-Forwarded-For (XFF) header, but you can specify any header name.
If the specified header isn't present in the request, WAF doesn't apply the rule to the web request at all.

HeaderName [required]

string

The name of the HTTP header to use for the IP address. For example, to use the X-Forwarded-For (XFF) header, set this to X-Forwarded-For. If the specified header isn't present in the request, WAF doesn't apply the rule to the web request at all.

FallbackBehavior [required]

string

The match status to assign to the web request if the request doesn't have a valid IP address in the specified position.
If the specified header isn't present in the request, WAF doesn't apply the rule to the web request at all.
You can specify the following fallback behaviors:
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

Position [required]

string

The position in the header to search for the IP address. The header can contain IP addresses of the original client and also of proxies. For example, the header value could be 10.1.1.1, 127.0.0.0, 10.10.10.10 where the first IP address identifies the original client and the rest identify proxies that the request went through.
The options for this setting are the following:
FIRST - Inspect the first IP address in the list of IP addresses in the header. This is usually the client's original IP.
LAST - Inspect the last IP address in the list of IP addresses in the header.
ANY - Inspect all IP addresses in the header for a match. If the header contains more than 10 IP addresses, WAF inspects the last 10.

RegexPatternSetReferenceStatement

object

A rule statement used to search web request components for matches with regular expressions. To use this, create a RegexPatternSet that specifies the expressions that you want to detect, then use the ARN of that set in this statement. A web request matches the pattern set rule statement if the request component matches any of the patterns in the set. To create a regex pattern set, see CreateRegexPatternSet.
Each regex pattern set rule statement references a regex pattern set. You create and maintain the set independent of your rules. This allows you to use the single set in multiple rules. When you update the referenced set, WAF automatically updates all rules that reference it.

ARN [required]

string

The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the RegexPatternSet that this statement references.

FieldToMatch [required]

object

The part of the web request that you want WAF to inspect. For more information, see FieldToMatch.

SingleHeader

object

Inspect a single header. Provide the name of the header to inspect, for example, User-Agent or Referer. This setting isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleHeader": { "Name": "haystack" }
Alternately, you can filter and inspect all headers with the Headers FieldToMatch setting.

Name [required]

string

The name of the query header to inspect.

SingleQueryArgument

object

Inspect a single query argument. Provide the name of the query argument to inspect, such as UserName or SalesRegion. The name can be up to 30 characters long and isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleQueryArgument": { "Name": "myArgument" }

Name [required]

string

The name of the query argument to inspect.

AllQueryArguments

object

Inspect all query arguments.

UriPath

object

Inspect the request URI path. This is the part of the web request that identifies a resource, for example, /images/daily-ad.jpg.

QueryString

object

Inspect the query string. This is the part of a URL that appears after a ? character, if any.

Body

object

Inspect the request body as plain text. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form. Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the Body object configuration.

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Method

object

Inspect the HTTP method. The method indicates the type of operation that the request is asking the origin to perform.

JsonBody

object

Inspect the request body as JSON. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the JsonBody object configuration.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The patterns to look for in the JSON body. WAF inspects the results of these pattern matches against the rule inspection criteria.

All

object

Match all of the elements. See also MatchScope in JsonBody.
You must specify either this setting or the IncludedPaths setting, but not both.

IncludedPaths

[string]

Match only the specified include paths. See also MatchScope in JsonBody.
Provide the include paths using JSON Pointer syntax. For example, "IncludedPaths": ["/dogs/0/name", "/dogs/1/name"]. For information about this syntax, see the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) documentation JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Pointer.
You must specify either this setting or the All setting, but not both.
Don't use this option to include all paths. Instead, use the All setting.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the JSON to match against using the MatchPattern. If you specify All, WAF matches against keys and values.

InvalidFallbackBehavior

string

What WAF should do if it fails to completely parse the JSON body. The options are the following:
EVALUATE_AS_STRING - Inspect the body as plain text. WAF applies the text transformations and inspection criteria that you defined for the JSON inspection to the body text string.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement. If you don't provide this setting, WAF parses and evaluates the content only up to the first parsing failure that it encounters. WAF does its best to parse the entire JSON body, but might be forced to stop for reasons such as invalid characters, duplicate keys, truncation, and any content whose root node isn't an object or an array.
WAF parses the JSON in the following examples as two valid key, value pairs:

  • Missing comma: {"key1":"value1""key2":"value2"}
  • Missing colon: {"key1":"value1","key2""value2"}
  • Extra colons: {"key1"::"value1","key2""value2"}

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Headers

object

Inspect the request headers. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Headers object, to define the set of headers to and the parts of the headers that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's headers and only the first 200 headers are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize header content in the Headers object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the headers that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of headers to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedHeaders, or ExcludedHeaders.
Example JSON: "HeaderMatchPattern": { "ExcludedHeaders": {"KeyToExclude1", "KeyToExclude2"} }

All

object

Inspect all headers.

IncludedHeaders

[string]

Inspect only the headers that have a key that matches one of the strings specified here.

ExcludedHeaders

[string]

Inspect only the headers whose keys don't match any of the strings specified here.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the headers to match with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

Cookies

object

Inspect the request cookies. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Cookies object, to define the set of cookies and the parts of the cookies that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's cookies and only the first 200 cookies are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize cookie content in the Cookies object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the cookies that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of cookies to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedCookies, or ExcludedCookies.
Example JSON: "CookieMatchPattern": { "IncludedCookies": {"KeyToInclude1", "KeyToInclude2", "KeyToInclude3"} }

All

object

Inspect all cookies.

IncludedCookies

[string]

Inspect only the cookies that have a key that matches one of the strings specified here.

ExcludedCookies

[string]

Inspect only the cookies whose keys don't match any of the strings specified here.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the cookies to inspect with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the cookies of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request cookies when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total cookies. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 cookies and at most 8 KB of cookie contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the cookies normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

HeaderOrder

object

Inspect a string containing the list of the request's header names, ordered as they appear in the web request that WAF receives for inspection. WAF generates the string and then uses that as the field to match component in its inspection. WAF separates the header names in the string using colons and no added spaces, for example host:user-agent:accept:authorization:referer.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are more numerous or larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF. The options for oversize handling are the following: CONTINUE - Inspect the available headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria. MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

JA3Fingerprint

object

Match against the request's JA3 fingerprint. The JA3 fingerprint is a 32-character hash derived from the TLS Client Hello of an incoming request. This fingerprint serves as a unique identifier for the client's TLS configuration. WAF calculates and logs this fingerprint for each request that has enough TLS Client Hello information for the calculation. Almost all web requests include this information. You can use this choice only with a string match ByteMatchStatement with the PositionalConstraint set to EXACTLY. You can obtain the JA3 fingerprint for client requests from the web ACL logs. If WAF is able to calculate the fingerprint, it includes it in the logs. For information about the logging fields, see Log fields in the WAF Developer Guide. Provide the JA3 fingerprint string from the logs in your string match statement specification, to match with any future requests that have the same TLS configuration.

FallbackBehavior [required]

string

The match status to assign to the web request if the request doesn't have a JA3 fingerprint. You can specify the following fallback behaviors: MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. If you specify one or more transformations in a rule statement, WAF performs all transformations on the content of the request component identified by FieldToMatch, starting from the lowest priority setting, before inspecting the content for a match.

Priority [required]

number

Sets the relative processing order for multiple transformations. WAF processes all transformations, from lowest priority to highest, before inspecting the transformed content. The priorities don't need to be consecutive, but they must all be different.

Type [required]

string

You can specify the following transformation types:
BASE64_DECODE - Decode a Base64-encoded string.
BASE64_DECODE_EXT - Decode a Base64-encoded string, but use a forgiving implementation that ignores characters that aren't valid.
CMD_LINE - Command-line transformations. These are helpful in reducing effectiveness of attackers who inject an operating system command-line command and use unusual formatting to disguise some or all of the command.

  • Delete the following characters: \ " ' ^
  • Delete spaces before the following characters: / (
  • Replace the following characters with a space: , ;
  • Replace multiple spaces with one space
  • Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z)

COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE - Replace these characters with a space character (decimal 32):

  • \f, formfeed, decimal 12
  • \t, tab, decimal 9
  • \n, newline, decimal 10
  • \r, carriage return, decimal 13
  • \v, vertical tab, decimal 11
  • Non-breaking space, decimal 160
    COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE also replaces multiple spaces with one space.

CSS_DECODE - Decode characters that were encoded using CSS 2.x escape rules syndata.html#characters. This function uses up to two bytes in the decoding process, so it can help to uncover ASCII characters that were encoded using CSS encoding that wouldn’t typically be encoded. It's also useful in countering evasion, which is a combination of a backslash and non-hexadecimal characters. For example, javascript for JavaScript.
ESCAPE_SEQ_DECODE - Decode the following ANSI C escape sequences: \a, \b, \f, \n, \r, \t, \v, \\, \?, \', \", \xHH (hexadecimal), \0OOO (octal). Encodings that aren't valid remain in the output.
HEX_DECODE - Decode a string of hexadecimal characters into a binary.
HTML_ENTITY_DECODE - Replace HTML-encoded characters with unencoded characters. HTML_ENTITY_DECODE performs these operations:

  • Replaces (ampersand)quot; with "
  • Replaces (ampersand)nbsp; with a non-breaking space, decimal 160
  • Replaces (ampersand)lt; with a < symbol
  • Replaces (ampersand)gt; with >
  • Replaces characters that are represented in hexadecimal format, (ampersand)#xhhhh;, with the corresponding characters
  • Replaces characters that are represented in decimal format, (ampersand)#nnnn;, with the corresponding characters

JS_DECODE - Decode JavaScript escape sequences. If a \ u HHHH code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, then the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. If not, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed, causing a possible loss of information.
LOWERCASE - Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z).
MD5 - Calculate an MD5 hash from the data in the input. The computed hash is in a raw binary form.
NONE - Specify NONE if you don't want any text transformations.
NORMALIZE_PATH - Remove multiple slashes, directory self-references, and directory back-references that are not at the beginning of the input from an input string.
NORMALIZE_PATH_WIN - This is the same as NORMALIZE_PATH, but first converts backslash characters to forward slashes.
REMOVE_NULLS - Remove all NULL bytes from the input.
REPLACE_COMMENTS - Replace each occurrence of a C-style comment (/* ... */) with a single space. Multiple consecutive occurrences are not compressed. Unterminated comments are also replaced with a space (ASCII 0x20). However, a standalone termination of a comment (*/) is not acted upon.
REPLACE_NULLS - Replace NULL bytes in the input with space characters (ASCII 0x20).
SQL_HEX_DECODE - Decode SQL hex data. Example (0x414243) will be decoded to (ABC).
URL_DECODE - Decode a URL-encoded value.
URL_DECODE_UNI - Like URL_DECODE, but with support for Microsoft-specific %u encoding. If the code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. Otherwise, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed.
UTF8_TO_UNICODE - Convert all UTF-8 character sequences to Unicode. This helps input normalization, and minimizing false-positives and false-negatives for non-English languages.

RateBasedStatement

object

A rate-based rule tracks the rate of requests for each originating IP address, and triggers the rule action when the rate exceeds a limit that you specify on the number of requests in any 5-minute time span. You can use this to put a temporary block on requests from an IP address that is sending excessive requests.
WAF tracks and manages web requests separately for each instance of a rate-based rule that you use. For example, if you provide the same rate-based rule settings in two web ACLs, each of the two rule statements represents a separate instance of the rate-based rule and gets its own tracking and management by WAF. If you define a rate-based rule inside a rule group, and then use that rule group in multiple places, each use creates a separate instance of the rate-based rule that gets its own tracking and management by WAF.
When the rule action triggers, WAF blocks additional requests from the IP address until the request rate falls below the limit.
You can optionally nest another statement inside the rate-based statement, to narrow the scope of the rule so that it only counts requests that match the nested statement. For example, based on recent requests that you have seen from an attacker, you might create a rate-based rule with a nested AND rule statement that contains the following nested statements:

  • An IP match statement with an IP set that specified the address 192.0.2.44.
  • A string match statement that searches in the User-Agent header for the string BadBot.

In this rate-based rule, you also define a rate limit. For this example, the rate limit is 1,000. Requests that meet both of the conditions in the statements are counted. If the count exceeds 1,000 requests per five minutes, the rule action triggers. Requests that do not meet both conditions are not counted towards the rate limit and are not affected by this rule.
You cannot nest a RateBasedStatement inside another statement, for example inside a NotStatement or OrStatement. You can define a RateBasedStatement inside a web ACL and inside a rule group.

Limit [required]

number

The limit on requests per 5-minute period for a single originating IP address. If the statement includes a ScopeDownStatement, this limit is applied only to the requests that match the statement.

AggregateKeyType [required]

string

Setting that indicates how to aggregate the request counts. The options are the following:
IP - Aggregate the request counts on the IP address from the web request origin.
FORWARDED_IP - Aggregate the request counts on the first IP address in an HTTP header. If you use this, configure the ForwardedIPConfig, to specify the header to use.

ScopeDownStatement

object

An optional nested statement that narrows the scope of the web requests that are evaluated and managed by the rate-based statement. When you use a scope-down statement, the rate-based rule only tracks and rate limits requests that match the scope-down statement. You can use any nestable Statement in the scope-down statement, and you can nest statements at any level, the same as you can for a rule statement.

ByteMatchStatement

object

A rule statement that defines a string match search for WAF to apply to web requests. The byte match statement provides the bytes to search for, the location in requests that you want WAF to search, and other settings. The bytes to search for are typically a string that corresponds with ASCII characters. In the WAF console and the developer guide, this is called a string match statement.

SearchString [required]

A string value that you want WAF to search for. WAF searches only in the part of web requests that you designate for inspection in FieldToMatch. The maximum length of the value is 50 bytes.
Valid values depend on the component that you specify for inspection in FieldToMatch:
Method: The HTTP method that you want WAF to search for. This indicates the type of operation specified in the request.
UriPath: The value that you want WAF to search for in the URI path, for example, /images/daily-ad.jpg.
If SearchString includes alphabetic characters A-Z and a-z, note that the value is case sensitive.

  • If you're using the WAF API
    Specify a base64-encoded version of the value. The maximum length of the value before you base64-encode it is 50 bytes. For example, suppose the value of Type is HEADER and the value of Data is User-Agent. If you want to search the User-Agent header for the value BadBot, you base64-encode BadBot using MIME base64-encoding and include the resulting value, QmFkQm90, in the value of SearchString.
  • If you're using the CLI or one of the Amazon Web Services SDKs
    The value that you want WAF to search for. The SDK automatically base64 encodes the value.

FieldToMatch [required]

object

The part of the web request that you want WAF to inspect. For more information, see FieldToMatch.

SingleHeader

object

Inspect a single header. Provide the name of the header to inspect, for example, User-Agent or Referer. This setting isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleHeader": { "Name": "haystack" }
Alternately, you can filter and inspect all headers with the Headers FieldToMatch setting.

Name [required]

string

The name of the query header to inspect.

SingleQueryArgument

object

Inspect a single query argument. Provide the name of the query argument to inspect, such as UserName or SalesRegion. The name can be up to 30 characters long and isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleQueryArgument": { "Name": "myArgument" }

Name [required]

string

The name of the query argument to inspect.

AllQueryArguments

object

Inspect all query arguments.

UriPath

object

Inspect the request URI path. This is the part of the web request that identifies a resource, for example, /images/daily-ad.jpg.

QueryString

object

Inspect the query string. This is the part of a URL that appears after a ? character, if any.

Body

object

Inspect the request body as plain text. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form. Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the Body object configuration.

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Method

object

Inspect the HTTP method. The method indicates the type of operation that the request is asking the origin to perform.

JsonBody

object

Inspect the request body as JSON. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the JsonBody object configuration.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The patterns to look for in the JSON body. WAF inspects the results of these pattern matches against the rule inspection criteria.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the JSON to match against using the MatchPattern. If you specify All, WAF matches against keys and values.

InvalidFallbackBehavior

string

What WAF should do if it fails to completely parse the JSON body. The options are the following:
EVALUATE_AS_STRING - Inspect the body as plain text. WAF applies the text transformations and inspection criteria that you defined for the JSON inspection to the body text string.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement. If you don't provide this setting, WAF parses and evaluates the content only up to the first parsing failure that it encounters. WAF does its best to parse the entire JSON body, but might be forced to stop for reasons such as invalid characters, duplicate keys, truncation, and any content whose root node isn't an object or an array.
WAF parses the JSON in the following examples as two valid key, value pairs:

  • Missing comma: {"key1":"value1""key2":"value2"}
  • Missing colon: {"key1":"value1","key2""value2"}
  • Extra colons: {"key1"::"value1","key2""value2"}

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Headers

object

Inspect the request headers. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Headers object, to define the set of headers to and the parts of the headers that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's headers and only the first 200 headers are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize header content in the Headers object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the headers that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of headers to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedHeaders, or ExcludedHeaders.
Example JSON: "HeaderMatchPattern": { "ExcludedHeaders": {"KeyToExclude1", "KeyToExclude2"} }

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the headers to match with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

Cookies

object

Inspect the request cookies. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Cookies object, to define the set of cookies and the parts of the cookies that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's cookies and only the first 200 cookies are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize cookie content in the Cookies object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the cookies that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of cookies to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedCookies, or ExcludedCookies.
Example JSON: "CookieMatchPattern": { "IncludedCookies": {"KeyToInclude1", "KeyToInclude2", "KeyToInclude3"} }

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the cookies to inspect with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the cookies of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request cookies when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total cookies. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 cookies and at most 8 KB of cookie contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the cookies normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

HeaderOrder

object

Inspect a string containing the list of the request's header names, ordered as they appear in the web request that WAF receives for inspection. WAF generates the string and then uses that as the field to match component in its inspection. WAF separates the header names in the string using colons and no added spaces, for example host:user-agent:accept:authorization:referer.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are more numerous or larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF. The options for oversize handling are the following: CONTINUE - Inspect the available headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria. MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

JA3Fingerprint

object

Match against the request's JA3 fingerprint. The JA3 fingerprint is a 32-character hash derived from the TLS Client Hello of an incoming request. This fingerprint serves as a unique identifier for the client's TLS configuration. WAF calculates and logs this fingerprint for each request that has enough TLS Client Hello information for the calculation. Almost all web requests include this information. You can use this choice only with a string match ByteMatchStatement with the PositionalConstraint set to EXACTLY. You can obtain the JA3 fingerprint for client requests from the web ACL logs. If WAF is able to calculate the fingerprint, it includes it in the logs. For information about the logging fields, see Log fields in the WAF Developer Guide. Provide the JA3 fingerprint string from the logs in your string match statement specification, to match with any future requests that have the same TLS configuration.

FallbackBehavior [required]

string

The match status to assign to the web request if the request doesn't have a JA3 fingerprint. You can specify the following fallback behaviors: MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. If you specify one or more transformations in a rule statement, WAF performs all transformations on the content of the request component identified by FieldToMatch, starting from the lowest priority setting, before inspecting the content for a match.

Priority [required]

number

Sets the relative processing order for multiple transformations. WAF processes all transformations, from lowest priority to highest, before inspecting the transformed content. The priorities don't need to be consecutive, but they must all be different.

Type [required]

string

You can specify the following transformation types:
BASE64_DECODE - Decode a Base64-encoded string.
BASE64_DECODE_EXT - Decode a Base64-encoded string, but use a forgiving implementation that ignores characters that aren't valid.
CMD_LINE - Command-line transformations. These are helpful in reducing effectiveness of attackers who inject an operating system command-line command and use unusual formatting to disguise some or all of the command.

  • Delete the following characters: \ " ' ^
  • Delete spaces before the following characters: / (
  • Replace the following characters with a space: , ;
  • Replace multiple spaces with one space
  • Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z)

COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE - Replace these characters with a space character (decimal 32):

  • \f, formfeed, decimal 12
  • \t, tab, decimal 9
  • \n, newline, decimal 10
  • \r, carriage return, decimal 13
  • \v, vertical tab, decimal 11
  • Non-breaking space, decimal 160
    COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE also replaces multiple spaces with one space.

CSS_DECODE - Decode characters that were encoded using CSS 2.x escape rules syndata.html#characters. This function uses up to two bytes in the decoding process, so it can help to uncover ASCII characters that were encoded using CSS encoding that wouldn’t typically be encoded. It's also useful in countering evasion, which is a combination of a backslash and non-hexadecimal characters. For example, javascript for JavaScript.
ESCAPE_SEQ_DECODE - Decode the following ANSI C escape sequences: \a, \b, \f, \n, \r, \t, \v, \\, \?, \', \", \xHH (hexadecimal), \0OOO (octal). Encodings that aren't valid remain in the output.
HEX_DECODE - Decode a string of hexadecimal characters into a binary.
HTML_ENTITY_DECODE - Replace HTML-encoded characters with unencoded characters. HTML_ENTITY_DECODE performs these operations:

  • Replaces (ampersand)quot; with "
  • Replaces (ampersand)nbsp; with a non-breaking space, decimal 160
  • Replaces (ampersand)lt; with a < symbol
  • Replaces (ampersand)gt; with >
  • Replaces characters that are represented in hexadecimal format, (ampersand)#xhhhh;, with the corresponding characters
  • Replaces characters that are represented in decimal format, (ampersand)#nnnn;, with the corresponding characters

JS_DECODE - Decode JavaScript escape sequences. If a \ u HHHH code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, then the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. If not, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed, causing a possible loss of information.
LOWERCASE - Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z).
MD5 - Calculate an MD5 hash from the data in the input. The computed hash is in a raw binary form.
NONE - Specify NONE if you don't want any text transformations.
NORMALIZE_PATH - Remove multiple slashes, directory self-references, and directory back-references that are not at the beginning of the input from an input string.
NORMALIZE_PATH_WIN - This is the same as NORMALIZE_PATH, but first converts backslash characters to forward slashes.
REMOVE_NULLS - Remove all NULL bytes from the input.
REPLACE_COMMENTS - Replace each occurrence of a C-style comment (/* ... */) with a single space. Multiple consecutive occurrences are not compressed. Unterminated comments are also replaced with a space (ASCII 0x20). However, a standalone termination of a comment (*/) is not acted upon.
REPLACE_NULLS - Replace NULL bytes in the input with space characters (ASCII 0x20).
SQL_HEX_DECODE - Decode SQL hex data. Example (0x414243) will be decoded to (ABC).
URL_DECODE - Decode a URL-encoded value.
URL_DECODE_UNI - Like URL_DECODE, but with support for Microsoft-specific %u encoding. If the code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. Otherwise, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed.
UTF8_TO_UNICODE - Convert all UTF-8 character sequences to Unicode. This helps input normalization, and minimizing false-positives and false-negatives for non-English languages.

PositionalConstraint [required]

string

The area within the portion of the web request that you want WAF to search for SearchString. Valid values include the following:
CONTAINS
The specified part of the web request must include the value of SearchString, but the location doesn't matter.
CONTAINS_WORD
The specified part of the web request must include the value of SearchString, and SearchString must contain only alphanumeric characters or underscore (A-Z, a-z, 0-9, or _). In addition, SearchString must be a word, which means that both of the following are true:

  • SearchString is at the beginning of the specified part of the web request or is preceded by a character other than an alphanumeric character or underscore (_). Examples include the value of a header and ;BadBot.
  • SearchString is at the end of the specified part of the web request or is followed by a character other than an alphanumeric character or underscore (_), for example, BadBot; and -BadBot;.

EXACTLY
The value of the specified part of the web request must exactly match the value of SearchString.
STARTS_WITH
The value of SearchString must appear at the beginning of the specified part of the web request.
ENDS_WITH
The value of SearchString must appear at the end of the specified part of the web request.

SqliMatchStatement

object

A rule statement that inspects for malicious SQL code. Attackers insert malicious SQL code into web requests to do things like modify your database or extract data from it.

FieldToMatch [required]

object

The part of the web request that you want WAF to inspect. For more information, see FieldToMatch.

SingleHeader

object

Inspect a single header. Provide the name of the header to inspect, for example, User-Agent or Referer. This setting isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleHeader": { "Name": "haystack" }
Alternately, you can filter and inspect all headers with the Headers FieldToMatch setting.

Name [required]

string

The name of the query header to inspect.

SingleQueryArgument

object

Inspect a single query argument. Provide the name of the query argument to inspect, such as UserName or SalesRegion. The name can be up to 30 characters long and isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleQueryArgument": { "Name": "myArgument" }

Name [required]

string

The name of the query argument to inspect.

AllQueryArguments

object

Inspect all query arguments.

UriPath

object

Inspect the request URI path. This is the part of the web request that identifies a resource, for example, /images/daily-ad.jpg.

QueryString

object

Inspect the query string. This is the part of a URL that appears after a ? character, if any.

Body

object

Inspect the request body as plain text. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form. Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the Body object configuration.

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Method

object

Inspect the HTTP method. The method indicates the type of operation that the request is asking the origin to perform.

JsonBody

object

Inspect the request body as JSON. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the JsonBody object configuration.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The patterns to look for in the JSON body. WAF inspects the results of these pattern matches against the rule inspection criteria.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the JSON to match against using the MatchPattern. If you specify All, WAF matches against keys and values.

InvalidFallbackBehavior

string

What WAF should do if it fails to completely parse the JSON body. The options are the following:
EVALUATE_AS_STRING - Inspect the body as plain text. WAF applies the text transformations and inspection criteria that you defined for the JSON inspection to the body text string.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement. If you don't provide this setting, WAF parses and evaluates the content only up to the first parsing failure that it encounters. WAF does its best to parse the entire JSON body, but might be forced to stop for reasons such as invalid characters, duplicate keys, truncation, and any content whose root node isn't an object or an array.
WAF parses the JSON in the following examples as two valid key, value pairs:

  • Missing comma: {"key1":"value1""key2":"value2"}
  • Missing colon: {"key1":"value1","key2""value2"}
  • Extra colons: {"key1"::"value1","key2""value2"}

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Headers

object

Inspect the request headers. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Headers object, to define the set of headers to and the parts of the headers that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's headers and only the first 200 headers are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize header content in the Headers object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the headers that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of headers to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedHeaders, or ExcludedHeaders.
Example JSON: "HeaderMatchPattern": { "ExcludedHeaders": {"KeyToExclude1", "KeyToExclude2"} }

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the headers to match with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

Cookies

object

Inspect the request cookies. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Cookies object, to define the set of cookies and the parts of the cookies that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's cookies and only the first 200 cookies are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize cookie content in the Cookies object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the cookies that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of cookies to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedCookies, or ExcludedCookies.
Example JSON: "CookieMatchPattern": { "IncludedCookies": {"KeyToInclude1", "KeyToInclude2", "KeyToInclude3"} }

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the cookies to inspect with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the cookies of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request cookies when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total cookies. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 cookies and at most 8 KB of cookie contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the cookies normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

HeaderOrder

object

Inspect a string containing the list of the request's header names, ordered as they appear in the web request that WAF receives for inspection. WAF generates the string and then uses that as the field to match component in its inspection. WAF separates the header names in the string using colons and no added spaces, for example host:user-agent:accept:authorization:referer.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are more numerous or larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF. The options for oversize handling are the following: CONTINUE - Inspect the available headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria. MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

JA3Fingerprint

object

Match against the request's JA3 fingerprint. The JA3 fingerprint is a 32-character hash derived from the TLS Client Hello of an incoming request. This fingerprint serves as a unique identifier for the client's TLS configuration. WAF calculates and logs this fingerprint for each request that has enough TLS Client Hello information for the calculation. Almost all web requests include this information. You can use this choice only with a string match ByteMatchStatement with the PositionalConstraint set to EXACTLY. You can obtain the JA3 fingerprint for client requests from the web ACL logs. If WAF is able to calculate the fingerprint, it includes it in the logs. For information about the logging fields, see Log fields in the WAF Developer Guide. Provide the JA3 fingerprint string from the logs in your string match statement specification, to match with any future requests that have the same TLS configuration.

FallbackBehavior [required]

string

The match status to assign to the web request if the request doesn't have a JA3 fingerprint. You can specify the following fallback behaviors: MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. If you specify one or more transformations in a rule statement, WAF performs all transformations on the content of the request component identified by FieldToMatch, starting from the lowest priority setting, before inspecting the content for a match.

Priority [required]

number

Sets the relative processing order for multiple transformations. WAF processes all transformations, from lowest priority to highest, before inspecting the transformed content. The priorities don't need to be consecutive, but they must all be different.

Type [required]

string

You can specify the following transformation types:
BASE64_DECODE - Decode a Base64-encoded string.
BASE64_DECODE_EXT - Decode a Base64-encoded string, but use a forgiving implementation that ignores characters that aren't valid.
CMD_LINE - Command-line transformations. These are helpful in reducing effectiveness of attackers who inject an operating system command-line command and use unusual formatting to disguise some or all of the command.

  • Delete the following characters: \ " ' ^
  • Delete spaces before the following characters: / (
  • Replace the following characters with a space: , ;
  • Replace multiple spaces with one space
  • Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z)

COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE - Replace these characters with a space character (decimal 32):

  • \f, formfeed, decimal 12
  • \t, tab, decimal 9
  • \n, newline, decimal 10
  • \r, carriage return, decimal 13
  • \v, vertical tab, decimal 11
  • Non-breaking space, decimal 160
    COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE also replaces multiple spaces with one space.

CSS_DECODE - Decode characters that were encoded using CSS 2.x escape rules syndata.html#characters. This function uses up to two bytes in the decoding process, so it can help to uncover ASCII characters that were encoded using CSS encoding that wouldn’t typically be encoded. It's also useful in countering evasion, which is a combination of a backslash and non-hexadecimal characters. For example, javascript for JavaScript.
ESCAPE_SEQ_DECODE - Decode the following ANSI C escape sequences: \a, \b, \f, \n, \r, \t, \v, \\, \?, \', \", \xHH (hexadecimal), \0OOO (octal). Encodings that aren't valid remain in the output.
HEX_DECODE - Decode a string of hexadecimal characters into a binary.
HTML_ENTITY_DECODE - Replace HTML-encoded characters with unencoded characters. HTML_ENTITY_DECODE performs these operations:

  • Replaces (ampersand)quot; with "
  • Replaces (ampersand)nbsp; with a non-breaking space, decimal 160
  • Replaces (ampersand)lt; with a < symbol
  • Replaces (ampersand)gt; with >
  • Replaces characters that are represented in hexadecimal format, (ampersand)#xhhhh;, with the corresponding characters
  • Replaces characters that are represented in decimal format, (ampersand)#nnnn;, with the corresponding characters

JS_DECODE - Decode JavaScript escape sequences. If a \ u HHHH code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, then the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. If not, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed, causing a possible loss of information.
LOWERCASE - Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z).
MD5 - Calculate an MD5 hash from the data in the input. The computed hash is in a raw binary form.
NONE - Specify NONE if you don't want any text transformations.
NORMALIZE_PATH - Remove multiple slashes, directory self-references, and directory back-references that are not at the beginning of the input from an input string.
NORMALIZE_PATH_WIN - This is the same as NORMALIZE_PATH, but first converts backslash characters to forward slashes.
REMOVE_NULLS - Remove all NULL bytes from the input.
REPLACE_COMMENTS - Replace each occurrence of a C-style comment (/* ... */) with a single space. Multiple consecutive occurrences are not compressed. Unterminated comments are also replaced with a space (ASCII 0x20). However, a standalone termination of a comment (*/) is not acted upon.
REPLACE_NULLS - Replace NULL bytes in the input with space characters (ASCII 0x20).
SQL_HEX_DECODE - Decode SQL hex data. Example (0x414243) will be decoded to (ABC).
URL_DECODE - Decode a URL-encoded value.
URL_DECODE_UNI - Like URL_DECODE, but with support for Microsoft-specific %u encoding. If the code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. Otherwise, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed.
UTF8_TO_UNICODE - Convert all UTF-8 character sequences to Unicode. This helps input normalization, and minimizing false-positives and false-negatives for non-English languages.

SensitivityLevel

string

The sensitivity that you want WAF to use to inspect for SQL injection attacks. HIGH detects more attacks, but might generate more false positives, especially if your web requests frequently contain unusual strings. For information about identifying and mitigating false positives, see Testing and tuning in the WAF Developer Guide. LOW is generally a better choice for resources that already have other protections against SQL injection attacks or that have a low tolerance for false positives. Default: LOW

XssMatchStatement

object

A rule statement that inspects for cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks. In XSS attacks, the attacker uses vulnerabilities in a benign website as a vehicle to inject malicious client-site scripts into other legitimate web browsers.

FieldToMatch [required]

object

The part of the web request that you want WAF to inspect. For more information, see FieldToMatch.

SingleHeader

object

Inspect a single header. Provide the name of the header to inspect, for example, User-Agent or Referer. This setting isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleHeader": { "Name": "haystack" }
Alternately, you can filter and inspect all headers with the Headers FieldToMatch setting.

Name [required]

string

The name of the query header to inspect.

SingleQueryArgument

object

Inspect a single query argument. Provide the name of the query argument to inspect, such as UserName or SalesRegion. The name can be up to 30 characters long and isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleQueryArgument": { "Name": "myArgument" }

Name [required]

string

The name of the query argument to inspect.

AllQueryArguments

object

Inspect all query arguments.

UriPath

object

Inspect the request URI path. This is the part of the web request that identifies a resource, for example, /images/daily-ad.jpg.

QueryString

object

Inspect the query string. This is the part of a URL that appears after a ? character, if any.

Body

object

Inspect the request body as plain text. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form. Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the Body object configuration.

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Method

object

Inspect the HTTP method. The method indicates the type of operation that the request is asking the origin to perform.

JsonBody

object

Inspect the request body as JSON. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the JsonBody object configuration.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The patterns to look for in the JSON body. WAF inspects the results of these pattern matches against the rule inspection criteria.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the JSON to match against using the MatchPattern. If you specify All, WAF matches against keys and values.

InvalidFallbackBehavior

string

What WAF should do if it fails to completely parse the JSON body. The options are the following:
EVALUATE_AS_STRING - Inspect the body as plain text. WAF applies the text transformations and inspection criteria that you defined for the JSON inspection to the body text string.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement. If you don't provide this setting, WAF parses and evaluates the content only up to the first parsing failure that it encounters. WAF does its best to parse the entire JSON body, but might be forced to stop for reasons such as invalid characters, duplicate keys, truncation, and any content whose root node isn't an object or an array.
WAF parses the JSON in the following examples as two valid key, value pairs:

  • Missing comma: {"key1":"value1""key2":"value2"}
  • Missing colon: {"key1":"value1","key2""value2"}
  • Extra colons: {"key1"::"value1","key2""value2"}

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Headers

object

Inspect the request headers. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Headers object, to define the set of headers to and the parts of the headers that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's headers and only the first 200 headers are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize header content in the Headers object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the headers that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of headers to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedHeaders, or ExcludedHeaders.
Example JSON: "HeaderMatchPattern": { "ExcludedHeaders": {"KeyToExclude1", "KeyToExclude2"} }

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the headers to match with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

Cookies

object

Inspect the request cookies. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Cookies object, to define the set of cookies and the parts of the cookies that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's cookies and only the first 200 cookies are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize cookie content in the Cookies object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the cookies that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of cookies to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedCookies, or ExcludedCookies.
Example JSON: "CookieMatchPattern": { "IncludedCookies": {"KeyToInclude1", "KeyToInclude2", "KeyToInclude3"} }

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the cookies to inspect with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the cookies of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request cookies when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total cookies. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 cookies and at most 8 KB of cookie contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the cookies normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

HeaderOrder

object

Inspect a string containing the list of the request's header names, ordered as they appear in the web request that WAF receives for inspection. WAF generates the string and then uses that as the field to match component in its inspection. WAF separates the header names in the string using colons and no added spaces, for example host:user-agent:accept:authorization:referer.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are more numerous or larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF. The options for oversize handling are the following: CONTINUE - Inspect the available headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria. MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

JA3Fingerprint

object

Match against the request's JA3 fingerprint. The JA3 fingerprint is a 32-character hash derived from the TLS Client Hello of an incoming request. This fingerprint serves as a unique identifier for the client's TLS configuration. WAF calculates and logs this fingerprint for each request that has enough TLS Client Hello information for the calculation. Almost all web requests include this information. You can use this choice only with a string match ByteMatchStatement with the PositionalConstraint set to EXACTLY. You can obtain the JA3 fingerprint for client requests from the web ACL logs. If WAF is able to calculate the fingerprint, it includes it in the logs. For information about the logging fields, see Log fields in the WAF Developer Guide. Provide the JA3 fingerprint string from the logs in your string match statement specification, to match with any future requests that have the same TLS configuration.

FallbackBehavior [required]

string

The match status to assign to the web request if the request doesn't have a JA3 fingerprint. You can specify the following fallback behaviors: MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. If you specify one or more transformations in a rule statement, WAF performs all transformations on the content of the request component identified by FieldToMatch, starting from the lowest priority setting, before inspecting the content for a match.

Priority [required]

number

Sets the relative processing order for multiple transformations. WAF processes all transformations, from lowest priority to highest, before inspecting the transformed content. The priorities don't need to be consecutive, but they must all be different.

Type [required]

string

You can specify the following transformation types:
BASE64_DECODE - Decode a Base64-encoded string.
BASE64_DECODE_EXT - Decode a Base64-encoded string, but use a forgiving implementation that ignores characters that aren't valid.
CMD_LINE - Command-line transformations. These are helpful in reducing effectiveness of attackers who inject an operating system command-line command and use unusual formatting to disguise some or all of the command.

  • Delete the following characters: \ " ' ^
  • Delete spaces before the following characters: / (
  • Replace the following characters with a space: , ;
  • Replace multiple spaces with one space
  • Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z)

COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE - Replace these characters with a space character (decimal 32):

  • \f, formfeed, decimal 12
  • \t, tab, decimal 9
  • \n, newline, decimal 10
  • \r, carriage return, decimal 13
  • \v, vertical tab, decimal 11
  • Non-breaking space, decimal 160
    COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE also replaces multiple spaces with one space.

CSS_DECODE - Decode characters that were encoded using CSS 2.x escape rules syndata.html#characters. This function uses up to two bytes in the decoding process, so it can help to uncover ASCII characters that were encoded using CSS encoding that wouldn’t typically be encoded. It's also useful in countering evasion, which is a combination of a backslash and non-hexadecimal characters. For example, javascript for JavaScript.
ESCAPE_SEQ_DECODE - Decode the following ANSI C escape sequences: \a, \b, \f, \n, \r, \t, \v, \\, \?, \', \", \xHH (hexadecimal), \0OOO (octal). Encodings that aren't valid remain in the output.
HEX_DECODE - Decode a string of hexadecimal characters into a binary.
HTML_ENTITY_DECODE - Replace HTML-encoded characters with unencoded characters. HTML_ENTITY_DECODE performs these operations:

  • Replaces (ampersand)quot; with "
  • Replaces (ampersand)nbsp; with a non-breaking space, decimal 160
  • Replaces (ampersand)lt; with a < symbol
  • Replaces (ampersand)gt; with >
  • Replaces characters that are represented in hexadecimal format, (ampersand)#xhhhh;, with the corresponding characters
  • Replaces characters that are represented in decimal format, (ampersand)#nnnn;, with the corresponding characters

JS_DECODE - Decode JavaScript escape sequences. If a \ u HHHH code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, then the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. If not, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed, causing a possible loss of information.
LOWERCASE - Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z).
MD5 - Calculate an MD5 hash from the data in the input. The computed hash is in a raw binary form.
NONE - Specify NONE if you don't want any text transformations.
NORMALIZE_PATH - Remove multiple slashes, directory self-references, and directory back-references that are not at the beginning of the input from an input string.
NORMALIZE_PATH_WIN - This is the same as NORMALIZE_PATH, but first converts backslash characters to forward slashes.
REMOVE_NULLS - Remove all NULL bytes from the input.
REPLACE_COMMENTS - Replace each occurrence of a C-style comment (/* ... */) with a single space. Multiple consecutive occurrences are not compressed. Unterminated comments are also replaced with a space (ASCII 0x20). However, a standalone termination of a comment (*/) is not acted upon.
REPLACE_NULLS - Replace NULL bytes in the input with space characters (ASCII 0x20).
SQL_HEX_DECODE - Decode SQL hex data. Example (0x414243) will be decoded to (ABC).
URL_DECODE - Decode a URL-encoded value.
URL_DECODE_UNI - Like URL_DECODE, but with support for Microsoft-specific %u encoding. If the code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. Otherwise, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed.
UTF8_TO_UNICODE - Convert all UTF-8 character sequences to Unicode. This helps input normalization, and minimizing false-positives and false-negatives for non-English languages.

SizeConstraintStatement

object

A rule statement that compares a number of bytes against the size of a request component, using a comparison operator, such as greater than (>) or less than (<). For example, you can use a size constraint statement to look for query strings that are longer than 100 bytes.
If you configure WAF to inspect the request body, WAF inspects only the first 8192 bytes (8 KB). If the request body for your web requests never exceeds 8192 bytes, you can create a size constraint condition and block requests that have a request body greater than 8192 bytes.
If you choose URI for the value of Part of the request to filter on, the slash (/) in the URI counts as one character. For example, the URI /logo.jpg is nine characters long.

FieldToMatch [required]

object

The part of the web request that you want WAF to inspect. For more information, see FieldToMatch.

SingleHeader

object

Inspect a single header. Provide the name of the header to inspect, for example, User-Agent or Referer. This setting isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleHeader": { "Name": "haystack" }
Alternately, you can filter and inspect all headers with the Headers FieldToMatch setting.

Name [required]

string

The name of the query header to inspect.

SingleQueryArgument

object

Inspect a single query argument. Provide the name of the query argument to inspect, such as UserName or SalesRegion. The name can be up to 30 characters long and isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleQueryArgument": { "Name": "myArgument" }

Name [required]

string

The name of the query argument to inspect.

AllQueryArguments

object

Inspect all query arguments.

UriPath

object

Inspect the request URI path. This is the part of the web request that identifies a resource, for example, /images/daily-ad.jpg.

QueryString

object

Inspect the query string. This is the part of a URL that appears after a ? character, if any.

Body

object

Inspect the request body as plain text. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form. Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the Body object configuration.

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Method

object

Inspect the HTTP method. The method indicates the type of operation that the request is asking the origin to perform.

JsonBody

object

Inspect the request body as JSON. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the JsonBody object configuration.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The patterns to look for in the JSON body. WAF inspects the results of these pattern matches against the rule inspection criteria.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the JSON to match against using the MatchPattern. If you specify All, WAF matches against keys and values.

InvalidFallbackBehavior

string

What WAF should do if it fails to completely parse the JSON body. The options are the following:
EVALUATE_AS_STRING - Inspect the body as plain text. WAF applies the text transformations and inspection criteria that you defined for the JSON inspection to the body text string.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement. If you don't provide this setting, WAF parses and evaluates the content only up to the first parsing failure that it encounters. WAF does its best to parse the entire JSON body, but might be forced to stop for reasons such as invalid characters, duplicate keys, truncation, and any content whose root node isn't an object or an array.
WAF parses the JSON in the following examples as two valid key, value pairs:

  • Missing comma: {"key1":"value1""key2":"value2"}
  • Missing colon: {"key1":"value1","key2""value2"}
  • Extra colons: {"key1"::"value1","key2""value2"}

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Headers

object

Inspect the request headers. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Headers object, to define the set of headers to and the parts of the headers that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's headers and only the first 200 headers are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize header content in the Headers object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the headers that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of headers to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedHeaders, or ExcludedHeaders.
Example JSON: "HeaderMatchPattern": { "ExcludedHeaders": {"KeyToExclude1", "KeyToExclude2"} }

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the headers to match with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

Cookies

object

Inspect the request cookies. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Cookies object, to define the set of cookies and the parts of the cookies that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's cookies and only the first 200 cookies are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize cookie content in the Cookies object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the cookies that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of cookies to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedCookies, or ExcludedCookies.
Example JSON: "CookieMatchPattern": { "IncludedCookies": {"KeyToInclude1", "KeyToInclude2", "KeyToInclude3"} }

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the cookies to inspect with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the cookies of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request cookies when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total cookies. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 cookies and at most 8 KB of cookie contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the cookies normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

HeaderOrder

object

Inspect a string containing the list of the request's header names, ordered as they appear in the web request that WAF receives for inspection. WAF generates the string and then uses that as the field to match component in its inspection. WAF separates the header names in the string using colons and no added spaces, for example host:user-agent:accept:authorization:referer.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are more numerous or larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF. The options for oversize handling are the following: CONTINUE - Inspect the available headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria. MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

JA3Fingerprint

object

Match against the request's JA3 fingerprint. The JA3 fingerprint is a 32-character hash derived from the TLS Client Hello of an incoming request. This fingerprint serves as a unique identifier for the client's TLS configuration. WAF calculates and logs this fingerprint for each request that has enough TLS Client Hello information for the calculation. Almost all web requests include this information. You can use this choice only with a string match ByteMatchStatement with the PositionalConstraint set to EXACTLY. You can obtain the JA3 fingerprint for client requests from the web ACL logs. If WAF is able to calculate the fingerprint, it includes it in the logs. For information about the logging fields, see Log fields in the WAF Developer Guide. Provide the JA3 fingerprint string from the logs in your string match statement specification, to match with any future requests that have the same TLS configuration.

FallbackBehavior [required]

string

The match status to assign to the web request if the request doesn't have a JA3 fingerprint. You can specify the following fallback behaviors: MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

ComparisonOperator [required]

string

The operator to use to compare the request part to the size setting.

Size [required]

number

The size, in byte, to compare to the request part, after any transformations.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. If you specify one or more transformations in a rule statement, WAF performs all transformations on the content of the request component identified by FieldToMatch, starting from the lowest priority setting, before inspecting the content for a match.

Priority [required]

number

Sets the relative processing order for multiple transformations. WAF processes all transformations, from lowest priority to highest, before inspecting the transformed content. The priorities don't need to be consecutive, but they must all be different.

Type [required]

string

You can specify the following transformation types:
BASE64_DECODE - Decode a Base64-encoded string.
BASE64_DECODE_EXT - Decode a Base64-encoded string, but use a forgiving implementation that ignores characters that aren't valid.
CMD_LINE - Command-line transformations. These are helpful in reducing effectiveness of attackers who inject an operating system command-line command and use unusual formatting to disguise some or all of the command.

  • Delete the following characters: \ " ' ^
  • Delete spaces before the following characters: / (
  • Replace the following characters with a space: , ;
  • Replace multiple spaces with one space
  • Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z)

COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE - Replace these characters with a space character (decimal 32):

  • \f, formfeed, decimal 12
  • \t, tab, decimal 9
  • \n, newline, decimal 10
  • \r, carriage return, decimal 13
  • \v, vertical tab, decimal 11
  • Non-breaking space, decimal 160
    COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE also replaces multiple spaces with one space.

CSS_DECODE - Decode characters that were encoded using CSS 2.x escape rules syndata.html#characters. This function uses up to two bytes in the decoding process, so it can help to uncover ASCII characters that were encoded using CSS encoding that wouldn’t typically be encoded. It's also useful in countering evasion, which is a combination of a backslash and non-hexadecimal characters. For example, javascript for JavaScript.
ESCAPE_SEQ_DECODE - Decode the following ANSI C escape sequences: \a, \b, \f, \n, \r, \t, \v, \\, \?, \', \", \xHH (hexadecimal), \0OOO (octal). Encodings that aren't valid remain in the output.
HEX_DECODE - Decode a string of hexadecimal characters into a binary.
HTML_ENTITY_DECODE - Replace HTML-encoded characters with unencoded characters. HTML_ENTITY_DECODE performs these operations:

  • Replaces (ampersand)quot; with "
  • Replaces (ampersand)nbsp; with a non-breaking space, decimal 160
  • Replaces (ampersand)lt; with a < symbol
  • Replaces (ampersand)gt; with >
  • Replaces characters that are represented in hexadecimal format, (ampersand)#xhhhh;, with the corresponding characters
  • Replaces characters that are represented in decimal format, (ampersand)#nnnn;, with the corresponding characters

JS_DECODE - Decode JavaScript escape sequences. If a \ u HHHH code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, then the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. If not, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed, causing a possible loss of information.
LOWERCASE - Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z).
MD5 - Calculate an MD5 hash from the data in the input. The computed hash is in a raw binary form.
NONE - Specify NONE if you don't want any text transformations.
NORMALIZE_PATH - Remove multiple slashes, directory self-references, and directory back-references that are not at the beginning of the input from an input string.
NORMALIZE_PATH_WIN - This is the same as NORMALIZE_PATH, but first converts backslash characters to forward slashes.
REMOVE_NULLS - Remove all NULL bytes from the input.
REPLACE_COMMENTS - Replace each occurrence of a C-style comment (/* ... */) with a single space. Multiple consecutive occurrences are not compressed. Unterminated comments are also replaced with a space (ASCII 0x20). However, a standalone termination of a comment (*/) is not acted upon.
REPLACE_NULLS - Replace NULL bytes in the input with space characters (ASCII 0x20).
SQL_HEX_DECODE - Decode SQL hex data. Example (0x414243) will be decoded to (ABC).
URL_DECODE - Decode a URL-encoded value.
URL_DECODE_UNI - Like URL_DECODE, but with support for Microsoft-specific %u encoding. If the code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. Otherwise, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed.
UTF8_TO_UNICODE - Convert all UTF-8 character sequences to Unicode. This helps input normalization, and minimizing false-positives and false-negatives for non-English languages.

GeoMatchStatement

object

A rule statement that labels web requests by country and region and that matches against web requests based on country code. A geo match rule labels every request that it inspects regardless of whether it finds a match. To manage requests only by country, you can use this statement by itself and specify the countries that you want to match against in the CountryCodes array. Otherwise, configure your geo match rule with Count action so that it only labels requests. Then, add one or more label match rules to run after the geo match rule and configure them to match against the geographic labels and handle the requests as needed. WAF labels requests using the alpha-2 country and region codes from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 3166 standard. WAF determines the codes using either the IP address in the web request origin or, if you specify it, the address in the geo match ForwardedIPConfig. If you use the web request origin, the label formats are awswaf:clientip:geo:region:<ISO country code>-<ISO region code> and awswaf:clientip:geo:country:<ISO country code>. If you use a forwarded IP address, the label formats are awswaf:forwardedip:geo:region:<ISO country code>-<ISO region code> and awswaf:forwardedip:geo:country:<ISO country code>. For additional details, see Geographic match rule statement in the WAF Developer Guide.

CountryCodes

[string]

An array of two-character country codes, for example, [ "US", "CN" ], from the alpha-2 country ISO codes of the ISO 3166 international standard.

ForwardedIPConfig

object

The configuration for inspecting IP addresses in an HTTP header that you specify, instead of using the IP address that's reported by the web request origin. Commonly, this is the X-Forwarded-For (XFF) header, but you can specify any header name. If the specified header isn't present in the request, WAF doesn't apply the rule to the web request at all.

HeaderName [required]

string

The name of the HTTP header to use for the IP address. For example, to use the X-Forwarded-For (XFF) header, set this to X-Forwarded-For. If the specified header isn't present in the request, WAF doesn't apply the rule to the web request at all.

FallbackBehavior [required]

string

The match status to assign to the web request if the request doesn't have a valid IP address in the specified position.
If the specified header isn't present in the request, WAF doesn't apply the rule to the web request at all.
You can specify the following fallback behaviors:
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

RuleGroupReferenceStatement

object

A rule statement used to run the rules that are defined in a RuleGroup. To use this, create a rule group with your rules, then provide the ARN of the rule group in this statement.
You cannot nest a RuleGroupReferenceStatement, for example for use inside a NotStatement or OrStatement. You can only use a rule group reference statement at the top level inside a web ACL.

ARN [required]

string

The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the entity.

ExcludedRules

[object]

The rules in the referenced rule group whose actions are set to Count. When you exclude a rule, WAF evaluates it exactly as it would if the rule action setting were Count. This is a useful option for testing the rules in a rule group without modifying how they handle your web traffic.

Name [required]

string

The name of the rule whose action you want to override to Count.

RuleActionOverrides

[object]

Action settings to use in the place of the rule actions that are configured inside the rule group. You specify one override for each rule whose action you want to change. You can use overrides for testing, for example you can override all of rule actions to Count and then monitor the resulting count metrics to understand how the rule group would handle your web traffic. You can also permanently override some or all actions, to modify how the rule group manages your web traffic.

Name [required]

string

The name of the rule to override.

ActionToUse [required]

object

The override action to use, in place of the configured action of the rule in the rule group.

Block

object

Instructs WAF to block the web request.

Allow

object

Instructs WAF to allow the web request.

Count

object

Instructs WAF to count the web request and then continue evaluating the request using the remaining rules in the web ACL.

Captcha

object

Instructs WAF to run a CAPTCHA check against the web request.

Challenge

object

Instructs WAF to run a Challenge check against the web request.

IPSetReferenceStatement

object

A rule statement used to detect web requests coming from particular IP addresses or address ranges. To use this, create an IPSet that specifies the addresses you want to detect, then use the ARN of that set in this statement. To create an IP set, see CreateIPSet. Each IP set rule statement references an IP set. You create and maintain the set independent of your rules. This allows you to use the single set in multiple rules. When you update the referenced set, WAF automatically updates all rules that reference it.

ARN [required]

string

The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the IPSet that this statement references.

IPSetForwardedIPConfig

object

The configuration for inspecting IP addresses in an HTTP header that you specify, instead of using the IP address that's reported by the web request origin. Commonly, this is the X-Forwarded-For (XFF) header, but you can specify any header name.
If the specified header isn't present in the request, WAF doesn't apply the rule to the web request at all.

HeaderName [required]

string

The name of the HTTP header to use for the IP address. For example, to use the X-Forwarded-For (XFF) header, set this to X-Forwarded-For. If the specified header isn't present in the request, WAF doesn't apply the rule to the web request at all.

FallbackBehavior [required]

string

The match status to assign to the web request if the request doesn't have a valid IP address in the specified position.
If the specified header isn't present in the request, WAF doesn't apply the rule to the web request at all.
You can specify the following fallback behaviors:
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

Position [required]

string

The position in the header to search for the IP address. The header can contain IP addresses of the original client and also of proxies. For example, the header value could be 10.1.1.1, 127.0.0.0, 10.10.10.10 where the first IP address identifies the original client and the rest identify proxies that the request went through.
The options for this setting are the following:
FIRST - Inspect the first IP address in the list of IP addresses in the header. This is usually the client's original IP.
LAST - Inspect the last IP address in the list of IP addresses in the header.
ANY - Inspect all IP addresses in the header for a match. If the header contains more than 10 IP addresses, WAF inspects the last 10.

RegexPatternSetReferenceStatement

object

A rule statement used to search web request components for matches with regular expressions. To use this, create a RegexPatternSet that specifies the expressions that you want to detect, then use the ARN of that set in this statement. A web request matches the pattern set rule statement if the request component matches any of the patterns in the set. To create a regex pattern set, see CreateRegexPatternSet.
Each regex pattern set rule statement references a regex pattern set. You create and maintain the set independent of your rules. This allows you to use the single set in multiple rules. When you update the referenced set, WAF automatically updates all rules that reference it.

ARN [required]

string

The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the RegexPatternSet that this statement references.

FieldToMatch [required]

object

The part of the web request that you want WAF to inspect. For more information, see FieldToMatch.

SingleHeader

object

Inspect a single header. Provide the name of the header to inspect, for example, User-Agent or Referer. This setting isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleHeader": { "Name": "haystack" }
Alternately, you can filter and inspect all headers with the Headers FieldToMatch setting.

Name [required]

string

The name of the query header to inspect.

SingleQueryArgument

object

Inspect a single query argument. Provide the name of the query argument to inspect, such as UserName or SalesRegion. The name can be up to 30 characters long and isn't case sensitive.
Example JSON: "SingleQueryArgument": { "Name": "myArgument" }

Name [required]

string

The name of the query argument to inspect.

AllQueryArguments

object

Inspect all query arguments.

UriPath

object

Inspect the request URI path. This is the part of the web request that identifies a resource, for example, /images/daily-ad.jpg.

QueryString

object

Inspect the query string. This is the part of a URL that appears after a ? character, if any.

Body

object

Inspect the request body as plain text. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form. Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the Body object configuration.

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Method

object

Inspect the HTTP method. The method indicates the type of operation that the request is asking the origin to perform.

JsonBody

object

Inspect the request body as JSON. The request body immediately follows the request headers. This is the part of a request that contains any additional data that you want to send to your web server as the HTTP request body, such as data from a form.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of the request body are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. For information about how to handle oversized request bodies, see the JsonBody object configuration.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The patterns to look for in the JSON body. WAF inspects the results of these pattern matches against the rule inspection criteria.

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the JSON to match against using the MatchPattern. If you specify All, WAF matches against keys and values.

InvalidFallbackBehavior

string

What WAF should do if it fails to completely parse the JSON body. The options are the following:
EVALUATE_AS_STRING - Inspect the body as plain text. WAF applies the text transformations and inspection criteria that you defined for the JSON inspection to the body text string.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement. If you don't provide this setting, WAF parses and evaluates the content only up to the first parsing failure that it encounters. WAF does its best to parse the entire JSON body, but might be forced to stop for reasons such as invalid characters, duplicate keys, truncation, and any content whose root node isn't an object or an array.
WAF parses the JSON in the following examples as two valid key, value pairs:

  • Missing comma: {"key1":"value1""key2":"value2"}
  • Missing colon: {"key1":"value1","key2""value2"}
  • Extra colons: {"key1"::"value1","key2""value2"}

OversizeHandling

string

What WAF should do if the body is larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of the body of a web request when the body exceeds 8 KB (8192 bytes). Only the first 8 KB of the request body are forwarded to WAF by the underlying host service.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the body normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.
You can combine the MATCH or NO_MATCH settings for oversize handling with your rule and web ACL action settings, so that you block any request whose body is over 8 KB.
Default: CONTINUE

Headers

object

Inspect the request headers. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Headers object, to define the set of headers to and the parts of the headers that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's headers and only the first 200 headers are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize header content in the Headers object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the headers that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of headers to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedHeaders, or ExcludedHeaders.
Example JSON: "HeaderMatchPattern": { "ExcludedHeaders": {"KeyToExclude1", "KeyToExclude2"} }

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the headers to match with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

Cookies

object

Inspect the request cookies. You must configure scope and pattern matching filters in the Cookies object, to define the set of cookies and the parts of the cookies that WAF inspects.
Only the first 8 KB (8192 bytes) of a request's cookies and only the first 200 cookies are forwarded to WAF for inspection by the underlying host service. You must configure how to handle any oversize cookie content in the Cookies object. WAF applies the pattern matching filters to the cookies that it receives from the underlying host service.

MatchPattern [required]

object

The filter to use to identify the subset of cookies to inspect in a web request.
You must specify exactly one setting: either All, IncludedCookies, or ExcludedCookies.
Example JSON: "CookieMatchPattern": { "IncludedCookies": {"KeyToInclude1", "KeyToInclude2", "KeyToInclude3"} }

MatchScope [required]

string

The parts of the cookies to inspect with the rule inspection criteria. If you specify All, WAF inspects both keys and values.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the cookies of the request are larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request cookies when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total cookies. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 cookies and at most 8 KB of cookie contents to WAF.
The options for oversize handling are the following:
CONTINUE - Inspect the cookies normally, according to the rule inspection criteria.
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

HeaderOrder

object

Inspect a string containing the list of the request's header names, ordered as they appear in the web request that WAF receives for inspection. WAF generates the string and then uses that as the field to match component in its inspection. WAF separates the header names in the string using colons and no added spaces, for example host:user-agent:accept:authorization:referer.

OversizeHandling [required]

string

What WAF should do if the headers of the request are more numerous or larger than WAF can inspect. WAF does not support inspecting the entire contents of request headers when they exceed 8 KB (8192 bytes) or 200 total headers. The underlying host service forwards a maximum of 200 headers and at most 8 KB of header contents to WAF. The options for oversize handling are the following: CONTINUE - Inspect the available headers normally, according to the rule inspection criteria. MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

JA3Fingerprint

object

Match against the request's JA3 fingerprint. The JA3 fingerprint is a 32-character hash derived from the TLS Client Hello of an incoming request. This fingerprint serves as a unique identifier for the client's TLS configuration. WAF calculates and logs this fingerprint for each request that has enough TLS Client Hello information for the calculation. Almost all web requests include this information. You can use this choice only with a string match ByteMatchStatement with the PositionalConstraint set to EXACTLY. You can obtain the JA3 fingerprint for client requests from the web ACL logs. If WAF is able to calculate the fingerprint, it includes it in the logs. For information about the logging fields, see Log fields in the WAF Developer Guide. Provide the JA3 fingerprint string from the logs in your string match statement specification, to match with any future requests that have the same TLS configuration.

FallbackBehavior [required]

string

The match status to assign to the web request if the request doesn't have a JA3 fingerprint. You can specify the following fallback behaviors: MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request. NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. If you specify one or more transformations in a rule statement, WAF performs all transformations on the content of the request component identified by FieldToMatch, starting from the lowest priority setting, before inspecting the content for a match.

Priority [required]

number

Sets the relative processing order for multiple transformations. WAF processes all transformations, from lowest priority to highest, before inspecting the transformed content. The priorities don't need to be consecutive, but they must all be different.

Type [required]

string

You can specify the following transformation types:
BASE64_DECODE - Decode a Base64-encoded string.
BASE64_DECODE_EXT - Decode a Base64-encoded string, but use a forgiving implementation that ignores characters that aren't valid.
CMD_LINE - Command-line transformations. These are helpful in reducing effectiveness of attackers who inject an operating system command-line command and use unusual formatting to disguise some or all of the command.

  • Delete the following characters: \ " ' ^
  • Delete spaces before the following characters: / (
  • Replace the following characters with a space: , ;
  • Replace multiple spaces with one space
  • Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z)

COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE - Replace these characters with a space character (decimal 32):

  • \f, formfeed, decimal 12
  • \t, tab, decimal 9
  • \n, newline, decimal 10
  • \r, carriage return, decimal 13
  • \v, vertical tab, decimal 11
  • Non-breaking space, decimal 160
    COMPRESS_WHITE_SPACE also replaces multiple spaces with one space.

CSS_DECODE - Decode characters that were encoded using CSS 2.x escape rules syndata.html#characters. This function uses up to two bytes in the decoding process, so it can help to uncover ASCII characters that were encoded using CSS encoding that wouldn’t typically be encoded. It's also useful in countering evasion, which is a combination of a backslash and non-hexadecimal characters. For example, javascript for JavaScript.
ESCAPE_SEQ_DECODE - Decode the following ANSI C escape sequences: \a, \b, \f, \n, \r, \t, \v, \\, \?, \', \", \xHH (hexadecimal), \0OOO (octal). Encodings that aren't valid remain in the output.
HEX_DECODE - Decode a string of hexadecimal characters into a binary.
HTML_ENTITY_DECODE - Replace HTML-encoded characters with unencoded characters. HTML_ENTITY_DECODE performs these operations:

  • Replaces (ampersand)quot; with "
  • Replaces (ampersand)nbsp; with a non-breaking space, decimal 160
  • Replaces (ampersand)lt; with a < symbol
  • Replaces (ampersand)gt; with >
  • Replaces characters that are represented in hexadecimal format, (ampersand)#xhhhh;, with the corresponding characters
  • Replaces characters that are represented in decimal format, (ampersand)#nnnn;, with the corresponding characters

JS_DECODE - Decode JavaScript escape sequences. If a \ u HHHH code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, then the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. If not, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed, causing a possible loss of information.
LOWERCASE - Convert uppercase letters (A-Z) to lowercase (a-z).
MD5 - Calculate an MD5 hash from the data in the input. The computed hash is in a raw binary form.
NONE - Specify NONE if you don't want any text transformations.
NORMALIZE_PATH - Remove multiple slashes, directory self-references, and directory back-references that are not at the beginning of the input from an input string.
NORMALIZE_PATH_WIN - This is the same as NORMALIZE_PATH, but first converts backslash characters to forward slashes.
REMOVE_NULLS - Remove all NULL bytes from the input.
REPLACE_COMMENTS - Replace each occurrence of a C-style comment (/* ... */) with a single space. Multiple consecutive occurrences are not compressed. Unterminated comments are also replaced with a space (ASCII 0x20). However, a standalone termination of a comment (*/) is not acted upon.
REPLACE_NULLS - Replace NULL bytes in the input with space characters (ASCII 0x20).
SQL_HEX_DECODE - Decode SQL hex data. Example (0x414243) will be decoded to (ABC).
URL_DECODE - Decode a URL-encoded value.
URL_DECODE_UNI - Like URL_DECODE, but with support for Microsoft-specific %u encoding. If the code is in the full-width ASCII code range of FF01-FF5E, the higher byte is used to detect and adjust the lower byte. Otherwise, only the lower byte is used and the higher byte is zeroed.
UTF8_TO_UNICODE - Convert all UTF-8 character sequences to Unicode. This helps input normalization, and minimizing false-positives and false-negatives for non-English languages.

RateBasedStatement

object

A rate-based rule tracks the rate of requests for each originating IP address, and triggers the rule action when the rate exceeds a limit that you specify on the number of requests in any 5-minute time span. You can use this to put a temporary block on requests from an IP address that is sending excessive requests.
WAF tracks and manages web requests separately for each instance of a rate-based rule that you use. For example, if you provide the same rate-based rule settings in two web ACLs, each of the two rule statements represents a separate instance of the rate-based rule and gets its own tracking and management by WAF. If you define a rate-based rule inside a rule group, and then use that rule group in multiple places, each use creates a separate instance of the rate-based rule that gets its own tracking and management by WAF.
When the rule action triggers, WAF blocks additional requests from the IP address until the request rate falls below the limit.
You can optionally nest another statement inside the rate-based statement, to narrow the scope of the rule so that it only counts requests that match the nested statement. For example, based on recent requests that you have seen from an attacker, you might create a rate-based rule with a nested AND rule statement that contains the following nested statements:

  • An IP match statement with an IP set that specified the address 192.0.2.44.
  • A string match statement that searches in the User-Agent header for the string BadBot.

In this rate-based rule, you also define a rate limit. For this example, the rate limit is 1,000. Requests that meet both of the conditions in the statements are counted. If the count exceeds 1,000 requests per five minutes, the rule action triggers. Requests that do not meet both conditions are not counted towards the rate limit and are not affected by this rule.
You cannot nest a RateBasedStatement inside another statement, for example inside a NotStatement or OrStatement. You can define a RateBasedStatement inside a web ACL and inside a rule group.

Limit [required]

number

The limit on requests per 5-minute period for a single originating IP address. If the statement includes a ScopeDownStatement, this limit is applied only to the requests that match the statement.

AggregateKeyType [required]

string

Setting that indicates how to aggregate the request counts. The options are the following:
IP - Aggregate the request counts on the IP address from the web request origin.
FORWARDED_IP - Aggregate the request counts on the first IP address in an HTTP header. If you use this, configure the ForwardedIPConfig, to specify the header to use.

ScopeDownStatement

object

An optional nested statement that narrows the scope of the web requests that are evaluated and managed by the rate-based statement. When you use a scope-down statement, the rate-based rule only tracks and rate limits requests that match the scope-down statement. You can use any nestable Statement in the scope-down statement, and you can nest statements at any level, the same as you can for a rule statement.

ByteMatchStatement

object

A rule statement that defines a string match search for WAF to apply to web requests. The byte match statement provides the bytes to search for, the location in requests that you want WAF to search, and other settings. The bytes to search for are typically a string that corresponds with ASCII characters. In the WAF console and the developer guide, this is called a string match statement.

SearchString [required]

A string value that you want WAF to search for. WAF searches only in the part of web requests that you designate for inspection in FieldToMatch. The maximum length of the value is 50 bytes.
Valid values depend on the component that you specify for inspection in FieldToMatch:
Method: The HTTP method that you want WAF to search for. This indicates the type of operation specified in the request.
UriPath: The value that you want WAF to search for in the URI path, for example, /images/daily-ad.jpg.
If SearchString includes alphabetic characters A-Z and a-z, note that the value is case sensitive.

  • If you're using the WAF API
    Specify a base64-encoded version of the value. The maximum length of the value before you base64-encode it is 50 bytes. For example, suppose the value of Type is HEADER and the value of Data is User-Agent. If you want to search the User-Agent header for the value BadBot, you base64-encode BadBot using MIME base64-encoding and include the resulting value, QmFkQm90, in the value of SearchString.
  • If you're using the CLI or one of the Amazon Web Services SDKs
    The value that you want WAF to search for. The SDK automatically base64 encodes the value.

FieldToMatch [required]

object

The part of the web request that you want WAF to inspect. For more information, see FieldToMatch.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. If you specify one or more transformations in a rule statement, WAF performs all transformations on the content of the request component identified by FieldToMatch, starting from the lowest priority setting, before inspecting the content for a match.

PositionalConstraint [required]

string

The area within the portion of the web request that you want WAF to search for SearchString. Valid values include the following:
CONTAINS
The specified part of the web request must include the value of SearchString, but the location doesn't matter.
CONTAINS_WORD
The specified part of the web request must include the value of SearchString, and SearchString must contain only alphanumeric characters or underscore (A-Z, a-z, 0-9, or _). In addition, SearchString must be a word, which means that both of the following are true:

  • SearchString is at the beginning of the specified part of the web request or is preceded by a character other than an alphanumeric character or underscore (_). Examples include the value of a header and ;BadBot.
  • SearchString is at the end of the specified part of the web request or is followed by a character other than an alphanumeric character or underscore (_), for example, BadBot; and -BadBot;.

EXACTLY
The value of the specified part of the web request must exactly match the value of SearchString.
STARTS_WITH
The value of SearchString must appear at the beginning of the specified part of the web request.
ENDS_WITH
The value of SearchString must appear at the end of the specified part of the web request.

SqliMatchStatement

object

A rule statement that inspects for malicious SQL code. Attackers insert malicious SQL code into web requests to do things like modify your database or extract data from it.

FieldToMatch [required]

object

The part of the web request that you want WAF to inspect. For more information, see FieldToMatch.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. If you specify one or more transformations in a rule statement, WAF performs all transformations on the content of the request component identified by FieldToMatch, starting from the lowest priority setting, before inspecting the content for a match.

SensitivityLevel

string

The sensitivity that you want WAF to use to inspect for SQL injection attacks. HIGH detects more attacks, but might generate more false positives, especially if your web requests frequently contain unusual strings. For information about identifying and mitigating false positives, see Testing and tuning in the WAF Developer Guide. LOW is generally a better choice for resources that already have other protections against SQL injection attacks or that have a low tolerance for false positives. Default: LOW

XssMatchStatement

object

A rule statement that inspects for cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks. In XSS attacks, the attacker uses vulnerabilities in a benign website as a vehicle to inject malicious client-site scripts into other legitimate web browsers.

FieldToMatch [required]

object

The part of the web request that you want WAF to inspect. For more information, see FieldToMatch.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. If you specify one or more transformations in a rule statement, WAF performs all transformations on the content of the request component identified by FieldToMatch, starting from the lowest priority setting, before inspecting the content for a match.

SizeConstraintStatement

object

A rule statement that compares a number of bytes against the size of a request component, using a comparison operator, such as greater than (>) or less than (<). For example, you can use a size constraint statement to look for query strings that are longer than 100 bytes.
If you configure WAF to inspect the request body, WAF inspects only the first 8192 bytes (8 KB). If the request body for your web requests never exceeds 8192 bytes, you can create a size constraint condition and block requests that have a request body greater than 8192 bytes.
If you choose URI for the value of Part of the request to filter on, the slash (/) in the URI counts as one character. For example, the URI /logo.jpg is nine characters long.

FieldToMatch [required]

object

The part of the web request that you want WAF to inspect. For more information, see FieldToMatch.

ComparisonOperator [required]

string

The operator to use to compare the request part to the size setting.

Size [required]

number

The size, in byte, to compare to the request part, after any transformations.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. If you specify one or more transformations in a rule statement, WAF performs all transformations on the content of the request component identified by FieldToMatch, starting from the lowest priority setting, before inspecting the content for a match.

GeoMatchStatement

object

A rule statement that labels web requests by country and region and that matches against web requests based on country code. A geo match rule labels every request that it inspects regardless of whether it finds a match. To manage requests only by country, you can use this statement by itself and specify the countries that you want to match against in the CountryCodes array. Otherwise, configure your geo match rule with Count action so that it only labels requests. Then, add one or more label match rules to run after the geo match rule and configure them to match against the geographic labels and handle the requests as needed. WAF labels requests using the alpha-2 country and region codes from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 3166 standard. WAF determines the codes using either the IP address in the web request origin or, if you specify it, the address in the geo match ForwardedIPConfig. If you use the web request origin, the label formats are awswaf:clientip:geo:region:<ISO country code>-<ISO region code> and awswaf:clientip:geo:country:<ISO country code>. If you use a forwarded IP address, the label formats are awswaf:forwardedip:geo:region:<ISO country code>-<ISO region code> and awswaf:forwardedip:geo:country:<ISO country code>. For additional details, see Geographic match rule statement in the WAF Developer Guide.

CountryCodes

[string]

An array of two-character country codes, for example, [ "US", "CN" ], from the alpha-2 country ISO codes of the ISO 3166 international standard.

ForwardedIPConfig

object

The configuration for inspecting IP addresses in an HTTP header that you specify, instead of using the IP address that's reported by the web request origin. Commonly, this is the X-Forwarded-For (XFF) header, but you can specify any header name. If the specified header isn't present in the request, WAF doesn't apply the rule to the web request at all.

RuleGroupReferenceStatement

object

A rule statement used to run the rules that are defined in a RuleGroup. To use this, create a rule group with your rules, then provide the ARN of the rule group in this statement.
You cannot nest a RuleGroupReferenceStatement, for example for use inside a NotStatement or OrStatement. You can only use a rule group reference statement at the top level inside a web ACL.

ARN [required]

string

The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the entity.

ExcludedRules

[object]

The rules in the referenced rule group whose actions are set to Count. When you exclude a rule, WAF evaluates it exactly as it would if the rule action setting were Count. This is a useful option for testing the rules in a rule group without modifying how they handle your web traffic.

RuleActionOverrides

[object]

Action settings to use in the place of the rule actions that are configured inside the rule group. You specify one override for each rule whose action you want to change. You can use overrides for testing, for example you can override all of rule actions to Count and then monitor the resulting count metrics to understand how the rule group would handle your web traffic. You can also permanently override some or all actions, to modify how the rule group manages your web traffic.

IPSetReferenceStatement

object

A rule statement used to detect web requests coming from particular IP addresses or address ranges. To use this, create an IPSet that specifies the addresses you want to detect, then use the ARN of that set in this statement. To create an IP set, see CreateIPSet. Each IP set rule statement references an IP set. You create and maintain the set independent of your rules. This allows you to use the single set in multiple rules. When you update the referenced set, WAF automatically updates all rules that reference it.

ARN [required]

string

The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the IPSet that this statement references.

IPSetForwardedIPConfig

object

The configuration for inspecting IP addresses in an HTTP header that you specify, instead of using the IP address that's reported by the web request origin. Commonly, this is the X-Forwarded-For (XFF) header, but you can specify any header name.
If the specified header isn't present in the request, WAF doesn't apply the rule to the web request at all.

RegexPatternSetReferenceStatement

object

A rule statement used to search web request components for matches with regular expressions. To use this, create a RegexPatternSet that specifies the expressions that you want to detect, then use the ARN of that set in this statement. A web request matches the pattern set rule statement if the request component matches any of the patterns in the set. To create a regex pattern set, see CreateRegexPatternSet.
Each regex pattern set rule statement references a regex pattern set. You create and maintain the set independent of your rules. This allows you to use the single set in multiple rules. When you update the referenced set, WAF automatically updates all rules that reference it.

ARN [required]

string

The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the RegexPatternSet that this statement references.

FieldToMatch [required]

object

The part of the web request that you want WAF to inspect. For more information, see FieldToMatch.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. If you specify one or more transformations in a rule statement, WAF performs all transformations on the content of the request component identified by FieldToMatch, starting from the lowest priority setting, before inspecting the content for a match.

RateBasedStatement

object

A rate-based rule tracks the rate of requests for each originating IP address, and triggers the rule action when the rate exceeds a limit that you specify on the number of requests in any 5-minute time span. You can use this to put a temporary block on requests from an IP address that is sending excessive requests.
WAF tracks and manages web requests separately for each instance of a rate-based rule that you use. For example, if you provide the same rate-based rule settings in two web ACLs, each of the two rule statements represents a separate instance of the rate-based rule and gets its own tracking and management by WAF. If you define a rate-based rule inside a rule group, and then use that rule group in multiple places, each use creates a separate instance of the rate-based rule that gets its own tracking and management by WAF.
When the rule action triggers, WAF blocks additional requests from the IP address until the request rate falls below the limit.
You can optionally nest another statement inside the rate-based statement, to narrow the scope of the rule so that it only counts requests that match the nested statement. For example, based on recent requests that you have seen from an attacker, you might create a rate-based rule with a nested AND rule statement that contains the following nested statements:

  • An IP match statement with an IP set that specified the address 192.0.2.44.
  • A string match statement that searches in the User-Agent header for the string BadBot.

In this rate-based rule, you also define a rate limit. For this example, the rate limit is 1,000. Requests that meet both of the conditions in the statements are counted. If the count exceeds 1,000 requests per five minutes, the rule action triggers. Requests that do not meet both conditions are not counted towards the rate limit and are not affected by this rule.
You cannot nest a RateBasedStatement inside another statement, for example inside a NotStatement or OrStatement. You can define a RateBasedStatement inside a web ACL and inside a rule group.

Limit [required]

number

The limit on requests per 5-minute period for a single originating IP address. If the statement includes a ScopeDownStatement, this limit is applied only to the requests that match the statement.

AggregateKeyType [required]

string

Setting that indicates how to aggregate the request counts. The options are the following:
IP - Aggregate the request counts on the IP address from the web request origin.
FORWARDED_IP - Aggregate the request counts on the first IP address in an HTTP header. If you use this, configure the ForwardedIPConfig, to specify the header to use.

ScopeDownStatement

object

An optional nested statement that narrows the scope of the web requests that are evaluated and managed by the rate-based statement. When you use a scope-down statement, the rate-based rule only tracks and rate limits requests that match the scope-down statement. You can use any nestable Statement in the scope-down statement, and you can nest statements at any level, the same as you can for a rule statement.

ForwardedIPConfig

object

The configuration for inspecting IP addresses in an HTTP header that you specify, instead of using the IP address that's reported by the web request origin. Commonly, this is the X-Forwarded-For (XFF) header, but you can specify any header name. If the specified header isn't present in the request, WAF doesn't apply the rule to the web request at all. This is required if you specify a forwarded IP in the rule's aggregate key settings.

CustomKeys

[object]

Specifies the aggregate keys to use in a rate-base rule.

AndStatement

object

A logical rule statement used to combine other rule statements with AND logic. You provide more than one Statement within the AndStatement.

Statements [required]

[object]

The statements to combine with AND logic. You can use any statements that can be nested.

OrStatement

object

A logical rule statement used to combine other rule statements with OR logic. You provide more than one Statement within the OrStatement.

Statements [required]

[object]

The statements to combine with OR logic. You can use any statements that can be nested.

NotStatement

object

A logical rule statement used to negate the results of another rule statement. You provide one Statement within the NotStatement.

Statement [required]

object

The statement to negate. You can use any statement that can be nested.

ManagedRuleGroupStatement

object

A rule statement used to run the rules that are defined in a managed rule group. To use this, provide the vendor name and the name of the rule group in this statement. You can retrieve the required names by calling ListAvailableManagedRuleGroups. You cannot nest a ManagedRuleGroupStatement, for example for use inside a NotStatement or OrStatement. It can only be referenced as a top-level statement within a rule.

VendorName [required]

string

The name of the managed rule group vendor. You use this, along with the rule group name, to identify a rule group.

Name [required]

string

The name of the managed rule group. You use this, along with the vendor name, to identify the rule group.

Version

string

The version of the managed rule group to use. If you specify this, the version setting is fixed until you change it. If you don't specify this, WAF uses the vendor's default version, and then keeps the version at the vendor's default when the vendor updates the managed rule group settings.

ExcludedRules

[object]

The rules in the referenced rule group whose actions are set to Count. When you exclude a rule, WAF evaluates it exactly as it would if the rule action setting were Count. This is a useful option for testing the rules in a rule group without modifying how they handle your web traffic.

ScopeDownStatement

object

An optional nested statement that narrows the scope of the web requests that are evaluated by the managed rule group. Requests are only evaluated by the rule group if they match the scope-down statement. You can use any nestable Statement in the scope-down statement, and you can nest statements at any level, the same as you can for a rule statement.

ManagedRuleGroupConfigs

[object]

Additional information that's used by a managed rule group. Most managed rule groups don't require this.
Use this for the account takeover prevention managed rule group AWSManagedRulesATPRuleSet, to provide information about the sign-in page of your application.
You can provide multiple individual ManagedRuleGroupConfig objects for any rule group configuration, for example UsernameField and PasswordField. The configuration that you provide depends on the needs of the managed rule group. For the ATP managed rule group, you provide the following individual configuration objects: LoginPath, PasswordField, PayloadType, and UsernameField.

RuleActionOverrides

[object]

Action settings to use in the place of the rule actions that are configured inside the rule group. You specify one override for each rule whose action you want to change. You can use overrides for testing, for example you can override all of rule actions to Count and then monitor the resulting count metrics to understand how the rule group would handle your web traffic. You can also permanently override some or all actions, to modify how the rule group manages your web traffic.

LabelMatchStatement

object

A rule statement that defines a string match search against labels that have been added to the web request by rules that have already run in the web ACL.
The label match statement provides the label or namespace string to search for. The label string can represent a part or all of the fully qualified label name that had been added to the web request. Fully qualified labels have a prefix, optional namespaces, and label name. The prefix identifies the rule group or web ACL context of the rule that added the label. If you do not provide the fully qualified name in your label match string, WAF performs the search for labels that were added in the same context as the label match statement.

Scope [required]

string

Specify whether you want to match using the label name or just the namespace.

Key [required]

string

The string to match against. The setting you provide for this depends on the match statement's Scope setting:

  • If the Scope indicates LABEL, then this specification must include the name and can include any number of preceding namespace specifications and prefix up to providing the fully qualified label name.
  • If the Scope indicates NAMESPACE, then this specification can include any number of contiguous namespace strings, and can include the entire label namespace prefix from the rule group or web ACL where the label originates.
    Labels are case sensitive and components of a label must be separated by colon, for example NS1:NS2:name.

RegexMatchStatement

object

A rule statement used to search web request components for a match against a single regular expression.

RegexString [required]

string

The string representing the regular expression.

FieldToMatch [required]

object

The part of the web request that you want WAF to inspect. For more information, see FieldToMatch.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. Text transformations are used in rule match statements, to transform the FieldToMatch request component before inspecting it, and they're used in rate-based rule statements, to transform request components before using them as custom aggregation keys. If you specify one or more transformations to apply, WAF performs all transformations on the specified content, starting from the lowest priority setting, and then uses the transformed component contents.

ForwardedIPConfig

object

The configuration for inspecting IP addresses in an HTTP header that you specify, instead of using the IP address that's reported by the web request origin. Commonly, this is the X-Forwarded-For (XFF) header, but you can specify any header name. If the specified header isn't present in the request, WAF doesn't apply the rule to the web request at all. This is required if you specify a forwarded IP in the rule's aggregate key settings.

HeaderName [required]

string

The name of the HTTP header to use for the IP address. For example, to use the X-Forwarded-For (XFF) header, set this to X-Forwarded-For. If the specified header isn't present in the request, WAF doesn't apply the rule to the web request at all.

FallbackBehavior [required]

string

The match status to assign to the web request if the request doesn't have a valid IP address in the specified position.
If the specified header isn't present in the request, WAF doesn't apply the rule to the web request at all.
You can specify the following fallback behaviors:
MATCH - Treat the web request as matching the rule statement. WAF applies the rule action to the request.
NO_MATCH - Treat the web request as not matching the rule statement.

CustomKeys

[object]

Specifies the aggregate keys to use in a rate-base rule.

Header

object

Use the value of a header in the request as an aggregate key. Each distinct value in the header contributes to the aggregation instance. If you use a single header as your custom key, then each value fully defines an aggregation instance.

Name [required]

string

The name of the header to use.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. Text transformations are used in rule match statements, to transform the FieldToMatch request component before inspecting it, and they're used in rate-based rule statements, to transform request components before using them as custom aggregation keys. If you specify one or more transformations to apply, WAF performs all transformations on the specified content, starting from the lowest priority setting, and then uses the transformed component contents.

Cookie

object

Use the value of a cookie in the request as an aggregate key. Each distinct value in the cookie contributes to the aggregation instance. If you use a single cookie as your custom key, then each value fully defines an aggregation instance.

Name [required]

string

The name of the cookie to use.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. Text transformations are used in rule match statements, to transform the FieldToMatch request component before inspecting it, and they're used in rate-based rule statements, to transform request components before using them as custom aggregation keys. If you specify one or more transformations to apply, WAF performs all transformations on the specified content, starting from the lowest priority setting, and then uses the transformed component contents.

QueryArgument

object

Use the specified query argument as an aggregate key. Each distinct value for the named query argument contributes to the aggregation instance. If you use a single query argument as your custom key, then each value fully defines an aggregation instance.

Name [required]

string

The name of the query argument to use.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. Text transformations are used in rule match statements, to transform the FieldToMatch request component before inspecting it, and they're used in rate-based rule statements, to transform request components before using them as custom aggregation keys. If you specify one or more transformations to apply, WAF performs all transformations on the specified content, starting from the lowest priority setting, and then uses the transformed component contents.

QueryString

object

Inspect the query string. This is the part of a URL that appears after a ? character, if any.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. Text transformations are used in rule match statements, to transform the FieldToMatch request component before inspecting it, and they're used in rate-based rule statements, to transform request components before using them as custom aggregation keys. If you specify one or more transformations to apply, WAF performs all transformations on the specified content, starting from the lowest priority setting, and then uses the transformed component contents.

HTTPMethod

object

Use the request's HTTP method as an aggregate key. Each distinct HTTP method contributes to the aggregation instance. If you use just the HTTP method as your custom key, then each method fully defines an aggregation instance.

ForwardedIP

object

Use the first IP address in an HTTP header as an aggregate key. Each distinct forwarded IP address contributes to the aggregation instance. When you specify an IP or forwarded IP in the custom key settings, you must also specify at least one other key to use. You can aggregate on only the forwarded IP address by specifying FORWARDED_IP in your rate-based statement's AggregateKeyType. With this option, you must specify the header to use in the rate-based rule's ForwardedIPConfig property.

IP

object

Use the request's originating IP address as an aggregate key. Each distinct IP address contributes to the aggregation instance. When you specify an IP or forwarded IP in the custom key settings, you must also specify at least one other key to use. You can aggregate on only the IP address by specifying IP in your rate-based statement's AggregateKeyType.

LabelNamespace

object

The label namespace prefix for this web ACL. All labels added by rules in this web ACL have this prefix. The syntax for the label namespace prefix for a web ACL is the following: awswaf:<account ID>:webacl:<web ACL name>: When a rule with a label matches a web request, WAF adds the fully qualified label to the request. A fully qualified label is made up of the label namespace from the rule group or web ACL where the rule is defined and the label from the rule, separated by a colon: <label namespace>:<label from rule>

Namespace [required]

string

The namespace to use for aggregation.

UriPath

object

Inspect the request URI path. This is the part of the web request that identifies a resource, for example, /images/daily-ad.jpg.

TextTransformations [required]

[object]

Text transformations eliminate some of the unusual formatting that attackers use in web requests in an effort to bypass detection. Text transformations are used in rule match statements, to transform the FieldToMatch request component before inspecting it, and they're used in rate-based rule statements, to transform request components before using them as custom aggregation keys. If you specify one or more transformations to apply, WAF performs all transformations on the specified content, starting from the lowest priority setting, and then uses the transformed component contents.

AndStatement

object

A logical rule statement used to combine other rule statements with AND logic. You provide more than one Statement within the AndStatement.

Statements [required]

[object]

The statements to combine with AND logic. You can use any statements that can be nested.

ByteMatchStatement

object

A rule statement that defines a string match search for WAF to apply to web requests. The byte match statement provides the bytes to search for, the location in requests that you want WAF to search, and other settings. The bytes to search for are typically a string that corresponds with ASCII characters. In the WAF console and the developer guide, this is called a string match statement.

SearchString [required]

A string value that you want WAF to search for. WAF searches only in the part of web requests that you designate for inspection in FieldToMatch. The maximum length of the value is 50 bytes.
Valid values depend on the component that you specify for inspection in FieldToMatch:
Method: The HTTP method that you want WAF to search for. This indicates the type of operation specified in the requ